This article reports on “molecular gastronomy,” a food movement whose practitioners—chemists who study food and chefs who apply their results—define as the application of the scientific method and laboratory apparatuses to further cooking. Molecular gastronomy offers one example of how scientific rationales sometimes percolate outside professional scientific fields. I explore what happens when the explanatory ground occupied by “culture” is supplanted by a different mode of expertise—here, science. Following ethnographic research conducted in a molecular gastronomy laboratory, I show how French molecular gastronomists seek both to preserve and renovate classic French cuisine. Describing how they think about French cuisine in an anthropological language indebted to French structuralism—the work of Claude Lévi-Strauss, in particular—I reflect on the afterlives of anthropological concepts in scientific domains.