# The single ring theorem | Annals of Mathematics

Abstract We study the empirical measure LAn of the eigenvalues of nonnormal square matrices of the form An=UnTnVn with Un,Vn independent Haar distributed on the unitary group and Tn real diagonal. We show that when the empirical measure of the eigenvalues of Tn converges, and Tn satisfies some technical conditions, LAn converges towards a rotationally invariant measure μ on the complex plane whose support is a single ring. In particular, we provide a complete proof of the Feinberg-Zee single ring theorem [FZ]. We also consider the case where Un,Vn are independently Haar distributed on the orthogonal group.

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### 数学年刊（Annals of Mathematics）

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