Between 30% and 50% of women who have high-grade uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS) limited to the uterus at diagnosis remain progression-free at 2 years. Adjuvant pelvic radiation does not improve outcome. The objective of the current study was to determine the 2-year and 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) among a prospective cohort of women who received adjuvant gemcitabine plus docetaxel followed by doxorubicin.
Women with uterus-limited, high-grade uLMS and adequate organ function were eligible. Within 12 weeks of complete resection and after confirmation that they had no evidence of disease on computed tomography (CT) images, the patients received 4 cycles of fixed-dose-rate gemcitabine plus docetaxel. Those who were confirmed disease-free on CT scans after cycle 4 received 4 cycles of doxorubicin. CT imaging for recurrence was performed every 3 months for 2 years, then every 6 months for 3 years.
In total, 47 women were enrolled (46 evaluable) in 3 years. Characteristics included a median age of 53 years; 1988 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I disease in 81% of patients, stage II disease in 15%, and serosa-only stage IIIA disease in 4%; American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II disease in 13% of patients and stage III disease in 87%; a median tumor size of 8 cm (range, 2.5-30 cm); and a median mitotic rate of 18 mitoses per 10 high-power fields (range, 5-83 mitoses per 10 high-power fields). At a median follow-up of 39.8 months, 21 of 46 patients developed recurrent disease (45.7%). The median time to recurrence was 27.4 months (range, 3-40 months). Seventy-eight percent of patients (95% confidence interval, 67%-91%) were progression-free at 2 years, and 57% (95% confidence interval, 44%-74%) were progression-free at 3 years. The median PFS was not reached and exceeded 36 months.
Among women with high-grade, uterus-limited uLMS who received treatment with adjuvant gemcitabine plus docetaxel followed by doxorubicin, 78% remained progression-free at 2 years, and 57% remained progression-free at 3 years. A randomized trial of adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation to determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy can improve survival in women with uterus-limited uLMS is underway.