There is a considerable body of evidence about the adverse effects of cancer and cancer treatments on employment, work ability, work performance, and work satisfaction among cancer survivors. There is also a growing consensus that cancer survivorship research needs to address the large variety of short-term and long-term work-related problems and that programs to support return to work and employment should be developed and integrated into the follow-up survivorship care of cancer patients. Cancer survivorship and employment can be considered from the perspective of the cancer survivor, the caregiver and the family, the employer and coworkers, the health care providers, and the community or society—elements that comprise many similarities but also differences between Europe and the Unites States and that may affect employment and return to work among cancer survivors in different ways. Previous research has specifically addressed the likelihood and timeliness of work return, including factors that promote and hinder return to work and work performance, and intervention studies and programs that focus on psychological, physical, pharmacologic, or multidisciplinary approaches to work. The area of work disability has emerged as an international field with research from areas throughout the globe. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the current state of scientific research in these areas and further provide a cancer survivorship and work model that integrates significant individual cancer-related, treatment-related, and work-related factors and outcomes. The report concludes with a discussion of European and American contributions and possible future directions for the enhancement of current efforts.