心理学年度评论2013-09-05 2:57 AM

Human Development in Societal Context - Annual Review of Psychology, 61(1):411

Low family socioeconomic position is a net of related conditions—low income, material deprivation, single-parent family structure, low educational level, minority ethnic group membership, and immigrant status. According to ecological theory, proximal contexts experienced by children, including family, material resources, out-of-school experiences, schools, neighborhoods, and peers, are mediators of poverty effects. Developmental timing of exposure to poverty conditions and the processes by which effects occur differ for cognitive and social domains of development. Understanding how contexts combine and interact is as important as understanding their independent influences. Effects may be cumulative, but advantages in one context can also ameliorate disadvantages in others. Although research is typically based on unidirectional causal models, the relations between the developing child and the contexts he or she experiences are reciprocal and transactional. Finally, although income inequality has increased greatly, little is known about the influences of relative poverty and social inequality on human development.

KEYWORDS

SHARE & LIKE

COMMENTS

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

心理学年度评论

0 Following 14 Fans 0 Projects 179 Articles

SIMILAR ARTICLES

ABSTRACT Using an autobiographical approach, I review several animal and human split-brain studies that have led me to change my long-term view on h

阅读更多

ABSTRACT The psychoactive constituent in cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was isolated in the mid-1960s, but the cannabinoid receptors, CB1

阅读更多

ABSTRACT Although synesthesia has been known about for 200 years, it is only in the past decade or so that substantial progress has been made in stu

阅读更多

ABSTRACT Human aesthetic preference in the visual domain is reviewed from definitional, methodological, empirical, and theoretical perspectives. Aes

阅读更多

ABSTRACT How can we ever know, unequivocally, that another person is conscious and aware? Putting aside deeper philosophical considerations about th

阅读更多

How can we ever know, unequivocally, that another person is conscious and aware? Putting aside deeper philosophical considerations about the nature of

阅读更多

Executive functions (EFs) make possible mentally playing with ideas; taking the time to think before acting; meeting novel, unanticipated challenges; r

阅读更多

From the traditional perspective of associative learning theory, the hypothesis linking modifications of synaptic transmission to learning and memory i

阅读更多

Evolutionary psychology is the second wave of the cognitive revolution. The first wave focused on computational processes that generate knowledge about

阅读更多

From an evolutionary perspective, morality is a form of cooperation. Cooperation requires individuals either to suppress their own self-interest or to

阅读更多