细胞期刊(Cell)2013-09-05 2:57 AM

Cell - Cyclic [G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p] Is the Metazoan Second Messenger Produced by DNA-Activated Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase

The rate of cell-cycle progression must be tuned in response to nutrient levels to ensure that sufficient materials are synthesized to generate viable daughters. We report that accumulation of the yeast M phase B-cyclin CLB2 mRNA depends on assembly and activation of the heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein (hnRNP) arginine methyltransferase Hmt1, which is promoted by the kinase Dbf2 and countered by the PP2A phosphatase Pph22. Activated Hmt1 methylates hnRNPs, which in turn stabilize CLB2 transcripts. Dbf2 activation of Hmt1 is highly cooperative, producing a sharp increase in CLB2, whereas Pph22 dephosphorylation is graded such that Recent studies identified cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) as a metazoan second messenger triggering an interferon response. cGAMP is generated from GTP and ATP by cytoplasmic dsDNA sensor cGAMP synthase (cGAS). We combined structural, chemical, biochemical, and cellular assays to demonstrate that this second messenger contains G(2′,5′)pA and A(3′,5′)pG phosphodiester linkages, designated c[G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p]. We show that, upon dsDNA binding, cGAS is activated through conformational transitions, resulting in formation of a catalytically competent and accessible nucleotide-binding pocket for generation of c[G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p]. We demonstrate that cyclization occurs in a stepwise manner through initial generation of 5′-pppG(2′,5′)pA prior to cyclization to c[G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p], with the latter positioned precisely in the catalytic pocket. Mutants of cGAS dsDNA-binding or catalytic pocket residues exhibit reduced or abrogated activity. Our studies have identified c[G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p] as a founding member of a family of metazoan 2′,5′-containing cyclic heterodinucleotide second messengers distinct from bacterial 3′,5′ cyclic dinucleotides.

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细胞期刊(Cell)

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