PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) is a key basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor of Arabidopsis thaliana that negatively regulates light responses, repressing chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and photomorphogenesis in the dark. However, the mechanism for the PIF3-mediated transcription regulation remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the REDUCED POTASSIUM DEPENDENCY3/HISTONE DEACETYLASE1-type histone deacetylase HDA15 directly interacted with PIF3 in vivo and in vitro. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that HDA15 acts mainly as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis gene expression in etiolated seedlings. HDA15 and PIF3 cotarget to the genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis in the dark and repress gene expression by decreasing the acetylation levels and RNA Polymerase II–associated transcription. The binding of HDA15 to the target genes depends on the presence of PIF3. In addition, PIF3 and HDA15 are dissociated from the target genes upon exposure to red light. Taken together, our results indicate that PIF3 associates with HDA15 to repress chlorophyll biosynthetic and photosynthetic genes in etiolated seedlings.