A growing body of literature has documented cultural differences in cognitive processes and also proposed various factors underlying these cultural differences. At the same time, not much attention has been paid to proximal-level processes that connect distal-level societal factors to individuals’ cognitive processing. This chapter aims to present a framework to integrate factors at multiple levels to understand cultural influences on cognitive processes. The chapter begins by providing an overview of cultural differences in cognitive processes, including potential moderators of cultural differences. Next, factors underlying cultural differences at multiple levels are outlined, with a focus on proximal-level situational processes. Subsequently, by introducing the case of culturally contingent consequences of power, the chapter illustrates how cultural contexts can moderate the effect of a certain factor on cognitive processes, highlighting the importance of multilevel analyses. Implications of multilevel analyses and directions for future research are discussed at the end.