认知心理学2013-09-05 2:57 AM

Conceptual influences on category-based induction

One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information vs. perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to 5-year-old children and adults (N = 344) test these theories by teaching categories for which category membership and perceptual similarity are in conflict, and varying the conceptual basis of the novel categories. Results indicate that for non-natural kind categories that have little conceptual coherence, children make inferences based on perceptual similarity, whereas adults make inferences based on category membership. In contrast, for basic- and ontological-level categories that have a principled conceptual basis, children and adults alike make use of category membership more than perceptual similarity as the basis of their inferences. These findings provide evidence in favor of the role of conceptual information in preschoolers’ inferences, and further demonstrate that labeled categories are not all equivalent; they differ in their inductive potential.

KEYWORDS

SHARE & LIKE

COMMENTS

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

认知心理学

0 Following 9 Fans 0 Projects 35 Articles

SIMILAR ARTICLES

Highlights • We compare English acquisition in internationally-adopted preschoolers and infants. • Like infants, preschoolers use one word utteran

Read More

Abstract The sound |faɪv| is visually depicted as a written number word “five” and as an Arabic digit “5.” Here, we present four experiments – two qua

Read More

Infants have a bandwidth-limited object working memory (WM) that can both individuate and identify objects in a scene, (answering ‘how many?’ or ‘what?

Read More

This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investi

Read More

Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more

Read More

It is typically assumed that count nouns like fork act as logical sortals, specifying whether objects are countable units of a kind (e.g., that a whole

Read More

One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductiv

Read More

The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM hol

Read More

Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss

Read More

Three studies compared bilinguals to monolinguals on 15 indicators of executive processing (EP). Most of the indicators compare a neutral or congruent

Read More