认知心理学2013-09-05 2:57 AM

There is no coherent evidence for a bilingual advantage in executive processing

Three studies compared bilinguals to monolinguals on 15 indicators of executive processing (EP). Most of the indicators compare a neutral or congruent baseline to a condition that should require EP. For each of the measures there was no main effect of group and a highly significant main effect of condition. The critical marker for a bilingual advantage, the Group × Condition interaction, was significant for only one indicator, but in a pattern indicative of a bilingual disadvantage. Tasks include antisaccade (Study 1), Simon (Studies 1–3), flanker (Study 3), and color-shape switching (Studies 1–3). The two groups performed identically on the Raven’s Advanced Matrices test (Study 3). Analyses on the combined data selecting subsets that are precisely matched on parent’s educational level or that include only highly fluent bilinguals reveal exactly the same pattern of results. A problem reconfirmed by the present study is that effects assumed to be indicators of a specific executive process in one task (e.g., inhibitory control in the flanker task) frequently do not predict individual differences in that same indicator on a related task (e.g., inhibitory control in the Simon task). The absence of consistent cross-task correlations undermines the interpretation that these are valid indicators of domain-general abilities. In a final discussion the underlying rationale for hypothesizing bilingual advantages in executive processing based on the special linguistic demands placed on bilinguals is interrogated.

KEYWORDS

SHARE & LIKE

COMMENTS

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

认知心理学

0 Following 9 Fans 0 Projects 35 Articles

SIMILAR ARTICLES

Highlights • We compare English acquisition in internationally-adopted preschoolers and infants. • Like infants, preschoolers use one word utteran

Read More

Abstract The sound |faɪv| is visually depicted as a written number word “five” and as an Arabic digit “5.” Here, we present four experiments – two qua

Read More

Infants have a bandwidth-limited object working memory (WM) that can both individuate and identify objects in a scene, (answering ‘how many?’ or ‘what?

Read More

This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investi

Read More

Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more

Read More

It is typically assumed that count nouns like fork act as logical sortals, specifying whether objects are countable units of a kind (e.g., that a whole

Read More

One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductiv

Read More

The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM hol

Read More

Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss

Read More

Three studies compared bilinguals to monolinguals on 15 indicators of executive processing (EP). Most of the indicators compare a neutral or congruent

Read More