认知心理学2013-09-05 2:57 AM

Propose but verify: Fast mapping meets cross-situational word learning

We report three eyetracking experiments that examine the learning procedure used by adults as they pair novel words and visually presented referents over a sequence of referentially ambiguous trials. Successful learning under such conditions has been argued to be the product of a learning procedure in which participants provisionally pair each novel word with several possible referents and use a statistical-associative learning mechanism to gradually converge on a single mapping across learning instances [e.g., Yu, C., & Smith, L. B. (2007). Rapid word learning under uncertainty via cross-situational statistics. Psychological Science, 18(5), 414–420]. We argue here that successful learning in this setting is instead the product of a one-trial procedure in which a single hypothesized word-referent pairing is retained across learning instances, abandoned only if the subsequent instance fails to confirm the pairing – more a ‘fast mapping’ procedure than a gradual statistical one. We provide experimental evidence for this propose-but-verify learning procedure via three experiments in which adult participants attempted to learn the meanings of nonce words cross-situationally under varying degrees of referential uncertainty. The findings, using both explicit (referent selection) and implicit (eye movement) measures, show that even in these artificial learning contexts, which are far simpler than those encountered by a language learner in a natural environment, participants do not retain multiple meaning hypotheses across learning instances. As we discuss, these findings challenge ‘gradualist’ accounts of word learning and are consistent with the known rapid course of vocabulary learning in a first language.

KEYWORDS

SHARE & LIKE

COMMENTS

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

认知心理学

0 Following 9 Fans 0 Projects 35 Articles

SIMILAR ARTICLES

Highlights • We compare English acquisition in internationally-adopted preschoolers and infants. • Like infants, preschoolers use one word utteran

Read More

Abstract The sound |faɪv| is visually depicted as a written number word “five” and as an Arabic digit “5.” Here, we present four experiments – two qua

Read More

Infants have a bandwidth-limited object working memory (WM) that can both individuate and identify objects in a scene, (answering ‘how many?’ or ‘what?

Read More

This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investi

Read More

Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more

Read More

It is typically assumed that count nouns like fork act as logical sortals, specifying whether objects are countable units of a kind (e.g., that a whole

Read More

One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductiv

Read More

The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM hol

Read More

Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss

Read More

Three studies compared bilinguals to monolinguals on 15 indicators of executive processing (EP). Most of the indicators compare a neutral or congruent

Read More