认知心理学2013-09-05 2:57 AM

The two-word stage: Motivated by linguistic or cognitive constraints?

Highlights • Cognition and language dissociation seen in two-word stage of late language learners. • Late learners show MLU of 1.7–2.13, category difference, noun–verb proportion change. • Late learners are 6;7–7;1, use mental verbs, and late-appearing semantic relations. • Two-word stage exists for linguistic, but not cognitive components in late learners. Abstract Child development researchers often discuss a “two-word” stage during language acquisition. However, there is still debate over whether the existence of this stage reflects primarily cognitive or linguistic constraints. Analyses of longitudinal data from two Deaf children, Mei and Cal, not exposed to an accessible first language (American Sign Language – ASL) until the age of 6 years, suggest that a linguistic constraint is observed when cognition is relatively spared. These older children acquiring a first language after delayed exposure exhibit aspects of a two-word stage of language development. Results from intelligence assessments, achievement tests, drawing tasks, and qualitative cognitive analyses show that Mei and Cal are at least of average intelligence and ability. However, results from language analyses clearly show differences from both age peers and younger native signers in the early two-word stage, providing new insights into the nature of this phase of language development.

KEYWORDS

SHARE & LIKE

COMMENTS

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

认知心理学

0 Following 9 Fans 0 Projects 35 Articles

SIMILAR ARTICLES

Highlights • We compare English acquisition in internationally-adopted preschoolers and infants. • Like infants, preschoolers use one word utteran

Read More

Abstract The sound |faɪv| is visually depicted as a written number word “five” and as an Arabic digit “5.” Here, we present four experiments – two qua

Read More

Infants have a bandwidth-limited object working memory (WM) that can both individuate and identify objects in a scene, (answering ‘how many?’ or ‘what?

Read More

This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investi

Read More

Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more

Read More

It is typically assumed that count nouns like fork act as logical sortals, specifying whether objects are countable units of a kind (e.g., that a whole

Read More

One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductiv

Read More

The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM hol

Read More

Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss

Read More

Three studies compared bilinguals to monolinguals on 15 indicators of executive processing (EP). Most of the indicators compare a neutral or congruent

Read More