变态心理学2013-09-05 2:57 AM

The emergence of sex differences in risk for disordered eating attitudes during puberty: A role for prenatal testosterone exposure.

Abstract Research suggests that prenatal testosterone exposure may masculinize (i.e., lower) disordered eating (DE) attitudes and behaviors and influence the lower prevalence of eating disorders in males versus females. How or when these effects become prominent remains unknown, although puberty may be a critical developmental period. In animals, the masculinizing effects of early testosterone exposure become expressed during puberty when gonadal hormones activate sex-typical behaviors, including eating behaviors. This study examined whether the masculinizing effects of prenatal testosterone exposure on DE attitudes emerge during puberty in 394 twins from opposite-sex and same-sex pairs. Twin type (opposite sex vs. same sex) was used as a proxy for level of prenatal testosterone exposure because females from opposite-sex twin pairs are thought to be exposed to testosterone in utero from their male co-twin. Consistent with animal data, there were no differences in levels of DE attitudes between opposite-sex and same-sex twins during pre-early puberty. However, during mid-late puberty, females from opposite-sex twin pairs (i.e., females with a male co-twin) exhibited more masculinized (i.e., lower) DE attitudes than females from same-sex twin pairs (i.e., females with a female co-twin), independent of several “third variables” (e.g., body mass index [BMI], anxiety). Findings suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure may decrease DE attitudes and at least partially underlie sex differences in risk for DE attitudes after mid-puberty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)

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