Huntington's disease is caused by expanded CAG repeats in HTT, conferring toxic gain of function on mutant HTT (mHTT) protein. Reducing mHTT amounts is postulated as a strategy for therapeutic intervention. We conducted genome-wide RNA interference screens for genes modifying mHTT abundance and identified 13 hits. We tested 10 in vivo in a Drosophila melanogaster Huntington's disease model, and 6 exhibited activity consistent with the in vitro screening results. Among these, negative regulator of ubiquitin-like protein 1 (NUB1) overexpression lowered mHTT in neuronal models and rescued mHTT-induced death. NUB1 reduces mHTT amounts by enhancing polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of mHTT protein. The process requires CUL3 and the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 necessary for CUL3 activation. As a potential approach to modulating NUB1 for treatment, interferon-β lowered mHTT and rescued neuronal toxicity through induction of NUB1. Thus, we have identified genes modifying endogenous mHTT using high-throughput screening and demonstrate NUB1 as an exemplar entry point for therapeutic intervention of Huntington's disease.