Nature2014-01-02 8:27 PM

An immense shield volcano within the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, northwest Pacific Ocean 西北太平洋,Shatsky上升大洋高原里的一个巨大盾状火山

Abstract Most oceanic plateaux are massive basaltic volcanoes. However, the structure of these volcanoes, and how they erupt and evolve, is unclear, because they are remote and submerged beneath the oceans. Here we use multichannel seismic profiles and rock samples taken from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program core sites to analyse the structure of the Tamu Massif, the oldest and largest edifice of the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau in the north-western Pacific Ocean. We show that the Tamu Massif is a single, immense volcano, constructed from massive lava flows that emanated from the volcano centre to form a broad, shield-like shape. The volcano has anomalously low slopes, probably due to the high effusion rates of the erupting lavas. We suggest that the Tamu Massif could be the largest single volcano on Earth and that it is comparable in size to the largest volcano in the Solar System, Olympus Mons on Mars. Our data document a class of oceanic volcanoes that is distinguished by its size and morphology from the thousands of seamounts found throughout the oceans. 论文摘要 大部分海洋高原是巨大的玄武质火山。 然而,由于它们远在海洋的掩盖之下, 我们对这些火山的结构以及它们如何爆发和演化并不清楚。 这里我们使用了多渠道地震剖析以及从综合海洋钻探计划中心地区得到的岩石样本来分析塔木地块的结构, 塔木地块是西北太平洋上升的海洋高原Shatsky中最古老也是最庞大的结构。 我们发现塔木地块是一个单一的巨大的火山, 大量的熔岩流从火山中心流出形成了一个巨大的盾状体。 这座火山有非常低的斜坡, 可能是由于喷发熔岩的高积液率造成的。 我们认为塔木地块也许是地球上最大的单一火山, 它的大小可能和火星奥林帕斯山上被认为是太阳系统中最大的火山差不多。 我们的数据记录了一批海洋火山,并通过尺寸和形状把海洋中这些成千上万的海底火山区分开来。

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