新英格兰医学杂志2014-01-09 1:50 AM

Myths, Presumptions, and Facts about Obesity 有关肥胖的神话,推论,和事实

Abstract 论文摘要 Background Many beliefs about obesity persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence (presumptions); some persist despite contradicting evidence (myths). The promulgation of unsupported beliefs may yield poorly informed policy decisions, inaccurate clinical and public health recommendations, and an unproductive allocation of research resources and may divert attention away from useful, evidence-based information. 背景 有关肥胖的许多信念坚持都没有科学证据(推定)支持; 而有些信念则坚持着一些自相矛盾的(神话)证据。无依据信念的普及可能会导致信息歪曲的政治决策,错误的临床和公共健康推荐以及研究资源的低效分配,并导致我们忽视那些有据可循的有用信息。 Methods Using Internet searches of popular media and scientific literature, we identified, reviewed, and classified obesity-related myths and presumptions. We also examined facts that are well supported by evidence, with an emphasis on those that have practical implications for public health, policy, or clinical recommendations. 方法 通过主流媒体和科学文献的网上搜索,我们辨认,综述和分类了那些与肥胖有关的神话和预测。我们还研究了那些有充份证据支持的事实,尤其侧重研究了那些对公共卫生,政策或临床建议有实质影响的事实。 Results We identified seven obesity-related myths concerning the effects of small sustained increases in energy intake or expenditure, establishment of realistic goals for weight loss, rapid weight loss, weight-loss readiness, physical-education classes, breast-feeding, and energy expended during sexual activity. We also identified six presumptions about the purported effects of regularly eating breakfast, early childhood experiences, eating fruits and vegetables, weight cycling, snacking, and the built (i.e., human-made) environment. Finally, we identified nine evidence-supported facts that are relevant for the formulation of sound public health, policy, or clinical recommendations. 结果 我们确定了7个有关肥胖的神话,这些神话有关能量摄入和消耗的小幅持续增长效应,且为减重,快速减重,减重准备,体育课程,哺乳,和性活动过程中能量消耗等建立了实际目标。我们还确认了6个传说中有关早餐规律,早期幼儿经历,食用水果蔬菜,体重循环周期,食用零食以及内置(比如人为人造)环境等效应的假设。最后我们确定了9个有关健全公共卫生,政策或临床推荐形成相关的有据可循的事实。 Conclusions False and scientifically unsupported beliefs about obesity are pervasive in both scientific literature and the popular press. 结论 有关肥胖无科学依据可循的不实信念在科学文献和主流媒体中普遍存在。 (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) (由美国国立卫生研究院资助。)

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