PLOS ONE2013-10-29 12:51 AM

Subglacial Lake Vostok (Antarctica) Accretion Ice Contains a Diverse Set of Sequences from Aquatic, Marine and Sediment-Inhabiting Bacteria and Eukarya 沃斯托克冰川湖(南极洲)堆积冰含有和水生、海洋及寄生沉积物非常不同的细菌和真核生物序列

Abstract Lake Vostok, the 7th largest (by volume) and 4th deepest lake on Earth, is covered by more than 3,700 m of ice, making it the largest subglacial lake known. The combination of cold, heat (from possible hydrothermal activity), pressure (from the overriding glacier), limited nutrients and complete darkness presents extreme challenges to life. Here, we report metagenomic/metatranscriptomic sequence analyses from four accretion ice sections from the Vostok 5G ice core. Two sections accreted in the vicinity of an embayment on the southwestern end of the lake, and the other two represented part of the southern main basin. We obtained 3,507 unique gene sequences from concentrates of 500 ml of 0.22 µm-filtered accretion ice meltwater. Taxonomic classifications (to genus and/or species) were possible for 1,623 of the sequences. Species determinations in combination with mRNA gene sequence results allowed deduction of the metabolic pathways represented in the accretion ice and, by extension, in the lake. Approximately 94% of the sequences were from Bacteria and 6% were from Eukarya. Only two sequences were from Archaea. In general, the taxa were similar to organisms previously described from lakes, brackish water, marine environments, soil, glaciers, ice, lake sediments, deep-sea sediments, deep-sea thermal vents, animals and plants. Sequences from aerobic, anaerobic, psychrophilic, thermophilic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, acidophilic, desiccation-resistant, autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms were present, including a number from multicellular eukaryotes. 论文摘要 沃斯托克湖是地球上第七大湖(按含水量计算),也是第四深的湖。湖面覆盖了3700英里的冰,因此它是已知最大的冰川湖。冷热交织(来自可能存在的水热运动),压力(来自重要的表面冰层),有限的营养物质,以及绝对的黑暗使这里成为了生命的禁地。在本文中,我们从沃斯托克湖5G冰心的4个堆积冰区进行宏基因组学/环境转录组学的系统分析报告。两个区块堆积在西南湖区角上湾状区域的临近地区,另两个区块来自南部主要流域。通过对500ml的堆积冰融水(0.22 µm-filtered)进行的分析,我们获得了3507个独特的基因序列。这些序列中的1623种可以用传统分类学进行分类。结合mRNA基因序列的结果进行物种测定可以推断出在堆积冰中甚至是整个湖中表现出来的代谢途径情况。这些序列中,大约94%来自细菌,6%来自真核生物。只有2个序列来自古生菌。总体来说,分类情况和之前描述过的来自湖水、淡咸水、海洋环境、土壤、冰川、冰、湖泊沉积物、深海沉积物、深海热液口、动物和植物的有机物分类相似。来自需氧、厌氧、喜寒、喜热、喜盐、嗜碱、嗜酸、耐干燥、自给营养及非自给营养的有机物序列也有描述,其中包括不少来自多细胞真核生物。

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