PLOS ONE2013-11-03 11:20 PM

Language, Reading, and Math Learning Profiles in an Epidemiological Sample of School Age Children 学龄儿童流行病样本中的语言,阅读和数理学习分布

Abstract Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities. 论文摘要 计算障碍,阅读障碍和特殊语言障碍是在数理学习中,阅读过程中和口头表达中特别是在正常智力水平和充分环境机遇相联系的情景口头表达中,相对特定的发展性学习缺陷。尽管人们广为认可缺陷原因具有交叉性和并发性,然而一直以来对学习缺陷单一方面原因的研究仍占据着主导地位。在这一项目中,我们采用了流行病学的方法在语言,阅读和数理方面对大量学龄儿童样本的学习分布进行了研究。我们不仅观察了样本个体优劣表现程度的总体学习分布,还观察了样本个体在分别具有语言,阅读,数理方面单一困难时或具有数理和阅读双重困难时特定的学习分布。后四者的分布表征了样本群体中七成的儿童或多或少都表现出了学习障碍。在语音短期记忆中得低分的那些样本群体表征了语言基础上的困难,而对语音意识能力薄弱或不稳定的另一些样本群体表征了非基于语言的阅读困难。研究中得分只在数理方面低的实验组没有表现出这些发音方面的障碍缺陷。研究中的这些发现很可能为表现在语言,阅读,数理方面的基于语言的障碍和表现在阅读和数理方面的基于阅读和数理二元相关基础的障碍,以及独立的数理障碍等学习缺陷症状各自揭示了不同的病因。

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