PLOS ONE2013-11-06 7:45 PM

Coevolution and the Effects of Climate Change on Interacting Species 协同进化和环境改变对物种间相互影响的作用

Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that environmental changes may tip the balance between interacting species, leading to the extinction of one or more species. While it is recognized that evolution will play a role in determining how environmental changes directly affect species, the interactions among species force us to consider the coevolutionary responses of species to environmental changes. 背景 近期对环境变化领域所做的研究向人们敲响了警钟:自然的复仇之手拨动了物种相互影响的天平,使越来越多的物种濒临灭绝。人们发现环境变化直接影响着物种变化,而进化本身又掌握着这种影响方向的决定权;与此同时,物种结盟抗衡环境变化的自然现象也促使我们对协同进化投去更多关注的目光。 Methodology/Principle Findings We use simple models of competition, predation, and mutualism to organize and synthesize the ways coevolution modifies species interactions when climatic changes favor one species over another. In cases where species have conflicting interests (i.e., selection for increased interspecific interaction strength on one species is detrimental to the other), we show that coevolution reduces the effects of climate change, leading to smaller changes in abundances and reduced chances of extinction. Conversely, when species have nonconflicting interests (i.e., selection for increased interspecific interaction strength on one species benefits the other), coevolution increases the effects of climate change. 方法论/定理论 当气候的更替更惠顾于种间的少数幸运儿时,协同进化就开始启动修正物种间相互影响的齿轮。对此现象,我们建立了物种间竞争、捕食和共生关系的简洁模型来尝试综合归纳协同进化在进行修正时所采用的各种方法。在物种间有利益冲突的例子中(比如当自然选择强化某物种的交互作用时损害了其他物种的利益),我们发现协同进化的力量有效缓和了环境改变带来的影响,控制了物种变化受影响的范围且大大降低了灭绝机率。而相反的是,当物种间没有利益冲突时(比如自然选择在强化某物种的交互作用时能顺带泽被其他物种),协同进化反而强化了环境变化的影响作用。 Conclusions/Significance Coevolution sets up feedback loops that either dampen or amplify the effect of environmental change on species abundances depending on whether coevolution has conflicting or nonconflicting effects on species interactions. Thus, gaining a better understanding of the coevolutionary processes between interacting species is critical for understanding how communities respond to a changing climate. We suggest experimental methods to determine which types of coevolution (conflicting or nonconflicting) drive species interactions, which should lead to better understanding of the effects of coevolution on species adaptation. Conducting these experiments across environmental gradients will test our predictions of the effects of environmental change and coevolution on ecological communities. 结论/意义 协同进化本身建立起了一个物种利益冲突与协同进化影响环境变化的双重反馈机制:面对环境的改变,协同进化是帮助物种消弭这种改变带来的影响还是选择推波助澜一番完全取决于物种在协同进化时是否触碰了“利益冲突”的按钮。在物种进化的漫漫长路中,协同进化时刻与适者生存定律相伴左右。如果想梳理物种群落如何结盟迎击气候的变化,我们就需要更深入地了解种间协同进化的整个过程。我们推荐运用实验方法来决定协同进化使用哪一面(是否产生利益冲突)来驭使物种间的相互作用;这也将更好地帮助我们探究协同进化的奥义。我们在不同环境中演绎这些实验也能检验已做出的有关环境性改变和协同进化对生态群落所起影响的假设。 Author Summary Recent studies suggest that environmental changes may tip the balance between species that interact with each other, leading to the extinction of one or more species. While it is recognized that evolution will alter the way environmental changes directly affect individual species, the interactions between species force us to also consider the evolution of species interactions themselves. We use simple models of competition, predation, and mutualism to evaluate the effect of coevolution on the abundance of interacting species when climatic changes favor one species over another. In cases where the species have conflicting interests (i.e., where selection on one species for increased strength of the interaction is detrimental to the other, such as an organism becoming more aggressive towards competitors), we show that coevolution reduces the effects of climate change, leading to smaller changes in abundances and reduced chances of extinction. Conversely, when the species have nonconflicting interests (i.e., where selection for increased interaction strength on one species benefits the other, such as an organism avoiding competition with other species), coevolution increases the effects of climate change. Thus, gaining a better understanding of the nature of the coevolution between interacting species is critical for understanding how communities respond to a changing climate. 作者总结 近期的研究表明环境的变化很可能打破物种间相互作用的平衡,使得越来越多的物种面临着灭绝的命运。进化决定着环境改变以何种方式直接体现在个体物种上。在我们认同这个理论的同时,中间自发产生的“社会关系”也促使我们关注和思考这种相互作用有力推动物种自身进化的自然现象。我们对种间竞争、捕食和共生关系进行了简单建模来衡量协同进化在气候变化更有利于某一物种时对种间相互作用造成的影响程度。在物种间产生相互利益冲突的例子中(比如当自然选择在强化某种物种的交互影响时会损害其他物种,就像物种在这种竞争情况下会遵循“狭路相逢勇者胜”的游戏规则),我们发现协同进化缓和了物种牢牢受气候变化钳制的局面,使得很多物种避免了灭绝的悲剧命运。而相反的是当物种间不会产生利益冲突时(比如自然选择强化某物种的交互影响时也会惠及其他物种,就像物种面对这种利己情况时会主动避免相互竞争),协同进化反而会强化气候变化带来的影响。所以对物种间协同进化拥有更深层的了解对我们更好理解物种群落如何应对气候变化来说至关重要。

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