PLOS ONE2013-11-21 9:10 PM

史前墨西哥恰帕斯洲使用辣椒的情况 Prehispanic Use of Chili Peppers in Chiapas, Mexico 



Abstract 

The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE–300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids. 



论文摘要 

辣椒属源起于新大陆且代表着是一个拥有着多种不同野生和改良类群的复杂大家庭。胡椒或水果辣椒属物种几乎都不能从中美或南美洲的paleoethnobotanical记录中发现。我们在这里研究发现:墨西哥南部Chiapa de Corzo地区发现的陶器样本中确证残存着辣椒属物种,这些陶器年代可追溯到前古典中期至晚期之间(即公元前400年至公元300年间)。我们收集了13个不同陶器样本中的辣椒残余且运用标准技术手法将之提取了出来。通过超高效液相色谱法(UPLC)/MS-MS分析,我们确定了辣椒属物种的残存。与标准(二氢辣椒碱)相比,挖掘发现的5个陶器样本表现出了有关辣椒属物种的化学性高峰,而同样的化学性高峰未在剩余的8个样本中发现。这种化学物质提取的研究结果为墨西哥Chiapas de Corzo地区约七百年使用辣椒属物种的历史(公元前400年至公元300年)提供了确凿证据。辣椒属物种在与烹饪相关的不同厨器陶罐中的残存让我们不禁想回到过去探寻辣椒在那个时候是如何被使用的。在哥伦布发现美洲大陆前,辣椒属物种有时会被添加到可可类产品中以增加风味。为了鉴定可可类物质的残存,我们利用可可碱作为标记来对相同的陶器样本组进行了检测:得到的结果都是阴性。由于检测到阴性结果的每个容器都曾被用作烹饪用具,我们提出了以下这一可能性:这些发掘自墨西哥Chiapas de Corzo地区陶罐样本上辣椒属物种的残余反映了那时期当地人民在宗教,节日庆典或日常生活中在烹饪或饮品中添加使用辣椒的事实。而之前部分被检测出阳性结果的容器相反也有可能仅用作辣椒的存储器具。考古学发现中最有意思的是我们从一个带嘴容器中测出了辣椒属物质的残存,而在这之前我们认为该陶罐仅仅是用来倾倒液体的。



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