PLOS ONE2013-12-23 11:51 PM

Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security 转基因作物与食品安全

Abstract The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. 论文摘要 转基因作物对粮食安全的影响时公共争论的主题。 转基因作物能够促进食品产量的增加并提高粮食供应。此外,转基因食品可能对食品质量和营养度也有影响。 最后,种植转基因作物也可能影响到农民的收入并让他们更经济地获得食物。 小农占世界上营养不良人口的大多数。 我们的研究着重于最后一点,我们提供了第一手的关于过去转基因作物对食品安全的微观层面的影响的研究。 我们利用过去几年从印度农户那边搜集到的综合数据,在印度,抗虫转基因棉花早就被广泛地接受了。 在控制其他因素的情况下,我们发现转基因棉花的采用已经显著提高了热量消耗和膳食质量,通过家庭收入的增加。 这个技术为棉花生产户降低了15%-20%的食品不安全度。 转基因作物本身不能解决温饱问题,但是它们可以是更广泛的食品安全策略的一个重要组成部分。

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