PLOS ONE2013-12-26 12:14 AM

Healthy Lifestyles Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases and Dementia: Evidence from the Caerphilly Cohort Study 健康生活方式降低慢性疾病和老年痴呆症发病率:卡菲利队列研究的证据

Abstract 论文摘要 Background Healthy lifestyles based on non-smoking, an acceptable BMI, a high fruit and vegetable intake, regular physical activity, and low/moderate alcohol intake, are associated with reductions in the incidence of certain chronic diseases, but to date there is limited evidence on cognitive function and dementia. 背景 建立在不吸烟,可接受的体质指数,水果和蔬菜的高摄入,规律的身体锻炼,低/适度酒精摄入量上的健康生活方式,与某些慢性疾病发病率的降低有关,但迄今为止它与认知功能和痴呆的关联性仍只有极少证据。 Methods In 1979 healthy behaviours were recorded on 2,235 men aged 45–59 years in Caerphilly, UK. During the following 30 years incident diabetes, vascular disease, cancer and death were recorded, and in 2004 cognitive state was determined. 方法 研究人员在1979年筛选了英国Caerphilly地区2,235名年龄在45-59岁间的男性,记录了他们的健康行为。此外在随后30年中记录了受测者发生的糖尿病,血管疾病,癌症和死亡事件,并在2004年对受测者的认知状况进行了确认。 Findings Men who followed four or five of the behaviours had an odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes, corrected for age and social class, of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.19, 1.31; P for trend with increasing numbers of healthy behaviours <0.0005). For vascular disease the OR was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.84; P for trend <0.0005), and there was a delay in vascular disease events of up to 12 years. Cancer incidence was not significantly related to lifestyle although there was a reduction associated with non-smoking (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.79). All-cause mortality was reduced in men following four or five behaviours (OR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.67; P for trend <0.005). After further adjustment for NART, the OR for men following four or five healthy behaviours was 0.36 (95% CI: 0.12, 1.09; P for trend <0.001) for cognitive impairment, and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.99; P for trend <0.02) for dementia The adoption of a healthy lifestyle by men was low and appears not to have changed during the subsequent 30 years, with under 1% of men following all five of the behaviours and 5% reporting four or more in 1979 and in 2009. 发现 在对年龄和社会阶层进行纠正后,保持4到5种健康行为习惯男性的糖尿病比值比(OR)和可信区间(CI)为0.50(95%可信区间:0.19,1.31; 代表健康行为不断增加的趋势概率P <0.0005)。 血管疾病比值比(OR)为0.50(95%CI:0.30,0.84,趋势P <0.0005), 在血管疾病事件上表现出了最长可达12年的延迟现象。癌症发病率与生活方式并未显著相关,但与非吸烟习惯有关联(OR:0.65,95%CI:0.54,0.79)。全因死亡率在保持4到5种健康行为习惯的男性中有所降低(OR 0.40,95%CI:0.24,0.67,趋势P <0.005)。 对NART进一步调整后,保持4到5种健康习惯男性认知功能障碍的OR值为0.36(95%CI:0.12,1.09,趋势P <0.001),老年痴呆症的OR值为0.36(95%CI:0.07,1.99,趋势P <0.02)。 在随后30年中,愿意做出改变,采取健康生活方式的男性很少,在1979年仅有1%以下的男性保持着全部5种健康习惯,且在2009年仅有5%的受测者自陈保持着4到5种健康习惯。 Interpretation A healthy lifestyle is associated with increased disease-free survival and reduced cognitive impairment but the uptake remains low. 解释 健康生活方式能提高无病生存率并减少认知障碍但愿意采取健康生活方式的人仍然很低。

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