PLOS ONE2013-12-26 12:19 AM

Dog Behavior Co-Varies with Height, Bodyweight and Skull Shape 狗的行为和身高,体重和头骨形状的相关关系。

Abstract
Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14), bodyweight alone (n = 5), CI alone (n = 3), bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2), height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3) or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6). For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001) with mounting persons or objects, touch sensitivity, urination when left alone, dog-directed fear, separation-related problems, non-social fear, defecation when left alone, owner-directed aggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001) with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001) with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001) but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020). The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape), bodyweight and height co-vary with behavior. The biological basis for, and significance of, these associations remain to be determined. 论文摘要 不同品种的狗狗的头骨和身体形状是如此不同,以至于给了我们特别的机会来研究形态和行为之间的关系。 一些研究已经给出了犬类头颅指数(CI: 头骨宽度和头骨长度之间的比例)和神经结构之间的关系。 我们的CI数据来自六雄六雌有现成的身高体重数据的产自澳大利亚的高品质的成年狗,通过犬类行为评估和研究问卷发现,这些CI数据和其他来自世界不同品种的狗的36种行为特征相关(n= 8,301). 逐步衰退的淘汰回归表明, 所有的犬种的33种行为特征,除了一种以外其他的32种行为特征和高度单独的相关性(n=14), 体重单独的相关性(n=5), CI单独的相关性(n=3)或者身高和体重联合的相关性(n=6)都不理想。 举个例子, 狗品种的平均身高和人员或者物体的增加,触摸敏感度,独处时排尿排便,面对其他狗的恐惧,独处相关问题,无社交恐惧,狗主人侵犯,食物乞讨,标记排尿以及寻求联系和注意力呈现强烈而显著的负相关(p<0.001)。 而身体重量和兴奋度以及被报告的极度活跃呈负相关。除了训练之外,所有和高度相关的回归系数呈负数说明,所有狗品种的行为随着高度的下降而变得更难搞。 互相舔毛行为随着CI上升而强烈增加,并随着身高上升而下降。 单独的CI值和自我梳理毛发行为显示了一个强烈显著的正相关关系,但是和追逐行为负相关关系。 现有的研究表明了CI(也就是说大脑形状), 身体重量和高度这几个因素和行为的相互关系。 这些联系的生物学基础和意义仍然有待确定。

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