PLOS ONE2014-01-13 12:44 AM

Micro-Biomechanics of the Kebara 2 Hyoid and Its Implications for Speech in Neanderthals kebara 2 期舌骨的微观力学和它对尼安得特穴居人说话能力的影响

Abstract
The description of a Neanderthal hyoid from Kebara Cave (Israel) in 1989 fuelled scientific debate on the evolution of speech and complex language. Gross anatomy of the Kebara 2 hyoid differs little from that of modern humans. However, whether Homo neanderthalensis could use speech or complex language remains controversial. Similarity in overall shape does not necessarily demonstrate that the Kebara 2 hyoid was used in the same way as that of Homo sapiens. The mechanical performance of whole bones is partly controlled by internal trabecular geometries, regulated by bone-remodelling in response to the forces applied. Here we show that the Neanderthal and modern human hyoids also present very similar internal architectures and micro-biomechanical behaviours. Our study incorporates detailed analysis of histology, meticulous reconstruction of musculature, and computational biomechanical analysis with models incorporating internal micro-geometry. Because internal architecture reflects the loadings to which a bone is routinely subjected, our findings are consistent with a capacity for speech in the Neanderthals. 论文摘要 有关1989年挖掘自Kebara洞(以色列)的尼安德特人舌骨的描述激起了针对语音和复杂语言进化的科学争论。对该Kebara 2期舌骨的大体解剖表明它与现代人的舌骨稍有差别。然而,对尼安德特智人是否会使用语音或复杂语言仍存在争议。相似的整体造型并非就可表明该Kebara 2期舌骨和智人舌骨的运作原理相同。整个骨骼的力学性能,局部是由内部骨小梁的几何形状所控制且由骨骼重建造所调节,从而来对施加力作出响应。在此,我们表明尼安德特人与现代人类的舌骨也展现出非常相似的内部架构和微观力学行为。本研究包含了组织学上的详细分析,肌肉组织的精细重建和包含内部微观几何模型的计算生物力学分析。由于内部架构反映了骨骼例常受到的负载量,我们的研究结果与尼安德特人的语音能力一致。

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