PLOS ONE2014-01-13 1:11 AM

Artificial Sweeteners in a Large Canadian River Reflect Human Consumption in the Watershed 加拿大河流中人工增甜剂反映了人类活动消耗对河流流域的影响

Abstract
Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L), cyclamate (0.88 µg/L), and saccharin (7.2 µg/L) are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota in rivers and in the downstream Great Lakes are largely unknown. 摘要 人工增甜剂现如今已经被广泛使用在人们的食品中,用来协助减肥疗法,牙齿健康预防和糖尿病患者的膳食控制。一些被广泛使用的化合物可以通过污水处理系统但未被降解处理,随即被排放到地下水和地上水中。而测量河流中饮用水中的人工增甜剂的含量检测是目前检测中所缺乏的技术。所以为了判定河水中人工增甜剂的浓度,以及在整个流域中其作为污水示踪剂的有效性,基于人们农业活动和城市中心发展的影响,我们分析了整条在加拿大格兰德河流域中的23站点进行检测分析。格兰德河流域流经的不同城市的市政用水和家庭用水都作为此次采集数据的样本。尽管在河水较浅,生物多样性很高,且含氧量较高的循环水中,我们仍发现环己氨基磺酸盐,邻磺苯甲酰亚胺,三氯蔗糖和乙酰舒泛等化学物质在河水中的浓度很高。我们所侦测到的三氯蔗糖的最高浓度(21毫克/升),环磺酸盐(0.88毫克/升),邻磺苯甲酰亚胺(7.2毫克/升)这些化学物质的浓度是迄今为止在世界上任何地表水中检测到的浓度最高的。在整条河流的300千米内,乙酰舒泛的浓度超过了检测极限许多个数量级,且一直残留在河水中,这一记录表明了在流域内人口的累计增长对污水排放造成的影响。乙酰舒泛是一种在河水中很精准的污水测量示踪剂。除此之外,它还被用来评估营养吸收率,测量污水中羽状物的稀释程度,区分水中排放污染物是否为人类粪便或者是动物粪便,同时能在鉴别在不同流域中混合的不同示踪剂有效性测量的干扰下确定新型污染物的相对持续性。但这些人工增甜剂在河流水生生物区系以及五大湖主要的流域中的影响效果还是大量未知的。

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