唧唧堂编辑二朵2013-11-21 3:18 AM

The Phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood 《小红帽》的发展史

Abstract Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the ‘historic-geographic’ school, it is possible to classify similar tales into “international types” and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, ‘Little Red Riding Hood’. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, ‘The Wolf and the Kids’. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives. 论文摘要 不同文化口头传说中的高度一致性一直吸引着很多研究专家。根据历史地理学派的研究,把相似的童话故事归为“国际类”并且追溯到它们的原型是很可行的。但是也有人持反对意见,他们认为民间传说的本质并不稳定,因此大多数国际类的故事都是人为的。在本文中,我们将采用系统发生学方法论述这些问题,这样的方法原本是用于在生物物种间重建进化关系,近年来被应用于广泛的文化现象研究之中。本项研究的重点是广受争议的文学中的国际类型:ATU333,即《小红帽》。在欧洲和美国已经记录下很多不同版本的ATU333,也有人提出这一组可能包含来自亚非国家等其他地区的故事。但是在多数情况下,我们很难把ATU333和另一个国际范围内广为传播的民间故事ATU123“狼与孩子”区分开来。为了研究这些关系,我们使用基于分支系统网络、贝叶斯网络和系统发生学网络的研究方法对58个民间故事进行了数据分析。结果显示,和那些反对历史地理学派的人结论相反,鉴别ATU333和ATU123为各不相同的国际类型是可行的。他们还认为多数非洲故事可被分类为ATU123的不同版本,而东亚的故事版本很可能是ATU333和ATU123的融合。这些发现证明了系统发生学方法为检测民间故事跨文化关系的假说提供了有力的科研工具,并且把口头叙述的研究领进了激动人心的传播和演变的新方向。

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