唧唧堂编辑二朵2013-12-26 11:49 PM

Sustainability and innovation in staple crop production in the US Midwest 美国中西部主要农作物生产的可持续发展和创新

Abstract An agroecosystem is constrained by environmental possibility and social choices, mainly in the form of government policies. To be sustainable, an agroecosystem requires production systems that are resilient to natural stressors such as disease, pests, drought, wind and salinity, and to human constructed stressors such as economic cycles and trade barriers. The world is becoming increasingly reliant on concentrated exporting agroecosystems for staple crops, and vulnerable to national and local decisions that affect resilience of these production systems. We chronicle the history of the United States staple crop agroecosystem of the Midwest region to determine whether sustainability is part of its design, or could be a likely outcome of existing policies particularly on innovation and intellectual property. Relative to other food secure and exporting countries (e.g. Western Europe), the US agroecosystem is not exceptional in yields or conservative on environmental impact. This has not been a trade-off for sustainability, as annual fluctuations in maize yield alone dwarf the loss of caloric energy from extreme historic blights. We suggest strategies for innovation that are responsive to more stakeholders and build resilience into industrialized staple crop production. 论文摘要 一个农业生态系统会受到环境可能性和社会选择的限制,通常通过政府政策的形式来实施。如果想要可持续发展,一个农业生态系统既需要生产系统对自然压力具有适应性,比如灾害,虫害,干旱,风灾和盐碱化;又需要能抵抗人为构造的压力比如经济周期和贸易壁垒。世界正在越来越依赖于集中出口主要作物的农业生态系统,且易于受到国内外影响这些生产系统适应能力的决策的影响。我们通过记录美国中西部地区主要作物农业生态系统的历史来确定到底可持续性是它本有的属性还是由现有政策尤其是创新和知识产权方面的政策而形成的可能结果。相较于其他食品安全和出口国家(比如西欧),美国的农业生态系统在产量和保守性上也毫不例外受到环境影响。这不是为可持续性发展而做的交易,因为单单玉米产量的年度波动就减缓了极端历史影响中的能量损失。我们认为是创新策略对更多利益关系人做出积极回应且使得工业化主要作物的生产具有了适应性。

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唧唧堂编辑二朵

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