The purpose of this study was to identify the specific components of facial aging secondary to smoking, by comparing standardized photographs of identical twins with different smoking histories.
During the Twins Days Festival in Twinsburg, Ohio, from 2007 to 2010, 79 pairs of twins were identified, in which only one twin smokes or where one twin smoked at least 5 years longer than his or her counterpart. Questionnaires were obtained and standardized photographs were taken by professional photographers. A panel of three blinded judges analyzed the twins' facial features and graded wrinkles using the validated Lemperle Assessment Scale, and ranked age-related facial features on a four-point scale.
从2007年到2010年，在俄亥俄州Twinsburg的双胞胎节，79对双胞胎参加了测试，这79对双胞胎中有的双胞胎中只有一人抽烟有的双胞胎中一人吸烟年份超过另外一人5年以上。 这些双胞胎进行了问卷测试并有专业摄影师为他们拍摄了标准的照片。 由三位盲审人员组成的评审团对这些双胞胎的面部特征进行了分析，然后使用经过验证的Lemperle的评估量表对这些人的皱纹进行了评级并在一个four-point 量表上对这些年龄相关的面部特征进行了排序。
Smoking twins compared with their nonsmoking counterparts had worse scores for upper eyelid skin redundancy, lower lid bags, malar bags, nasolabial folds, upper lip wrinkles, lower lip vermillion wrinkles, and jowls. Lower lid hyperpigmentation in the smoking group fell just short of statistical significance. Transverse forehead wrinkles, glabellar wrinkles, crow's feet, and lower lip lines accentuated by puckering did not have a statistically significant differences in scores. Among twins with greater than 5 years' difference in smoking duration, twins who had smoked longer had worse scores for lower lid bags, malar bags, and lower lip vermillion wrinkles.
和不吸烟的另一个相比，双胞胎中吸烟的那一个在下面几个面部特征上都得到更差的评分：上眼睑下垂，下眼袋，颧骨，鼻唇沟，上嘴唇纹，下嘴唇纹和下颌纹。 下眼睑色素沉着在统计学上的差异还不够大。 横向抬头纹，眉间皱纹，鱼尾纹，以及褶皱引起的下唇纹路的得分在统计学上并没有显著差异。在那些具有超过5年烟龄差距的双胞胎中，吸烟时间更长的那一个在下眼袋，颧骨，下唇皱纹这些面部特征上有更糟糕的得分。
Conclusions:This study details the specifics of facial aging brought on by smoking, which primarily affects the middle and lower thirds of the face. It also demonstrates that a 5-year difference in smoking history can cause noticeable differences in facial aging in twins.