唧唧堂编辑二朵2014-01-09 2:25 AM

An automated training paradigm reveals long-term memory in planaria and its persistence through head regeneration 自动化的训练范例揭示涡虫的长期记忆和它通过头部再生的持久性

Abstract Planarian flatworms are a popular system for research into the molecular mechanisms that enable these complex organisms to regenerate their entire body, including the brain. Classical data suggest that they may also be capable of long-term memory. Thus, the planarian system may offer the unique opportunity to study brain regeneration and memory in the same animal. To establish a system for the investigation of the dynamics of memory in a regenerating brain, we developed a computerized training and testing paradigm that avoided the many issues that confounded previous, manual attempts to train planaria. We then used this new system to train flatworms in an environmental familiarization protocol. We show that worms exhibit environmental familiarization, and that this memory persists for at least 14 days – long enough for the brain to regenerate. We further show that trained, decapitated planaria exhibit evidence of memory retrieval in a savings paradigm after regenerating a new head. Our work establishes a foundation for objective, high-throughput assays in this molecularly-tractable model system that will shed light on the fundamental interface between body patterning and stored memories. We propose planaria as a key emerging model species for mechanistic investigations of the encoding of specific memories in biological tissues. Moreover, this system is likely to have important implications for the biomedicine of stem cell-derived treatments of degenerative brain disorders in human adults. 论文摘要 涡虫扁虫是一个用来研究分子机制的流行体系,该机制使这些复杂生物体重新生成包括脑在内的整个身体。经典数据表明这些机制也可能储存长期记忆。因此,涡虫系统可以为研究相同动物中的大脑再生和记忆提供独特机会。为了建立一个能调查再生脑中动态记忆的系统,我们开发了一个计算机化的训练和测试范例,该范例避免了许多混淆以前人工尝试训练涡虫的问题。然后我们在环境熟悉的计划中使用该新系统来训练扁虫。我们表示涡虫表现出对环境的熟悉,并且该记忆持续了至少14天,这对大脑重建来说时间足够充裕。我们进一步表示,经训练的断头涡虫展现了重生头部后能从储存样板中记忆再生的证据。在这个分子态下易处理的模型系统中,我们的工作为客观高通量筛选的试验建立了基础,这将为身体形态和已存记忆间的基本接口提供线索。我们建议将涡虫作为对在生物组织中的具体记忆进行编码的机理研究中的关键新兴模式物种。此外,这种系统很可能对成人退化性脑部疾病的干细胞衍生治疗的生物医学产生深远影响。

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