Among adults, skipping meals is associated with excess body weight, hypertension, insulin resistance, and elevated fasting lipid concentrations. However, it remains unknown whether specific eating habits regardless of dietary composition influence coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine eating habits and risk of CHD.
Methods and Results
Eating habits, including breakfast eating, were assessed in 1992 in 26 902 American men 45 to 82 years of age from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer. During 16 years of follow-up, 1527 incident CHD cases were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for CHD, adjusted for demographic, diet, lifestyle, and other CHD risk factors. Men who skipped breakfast had a 27% higher risk of CHD compared with men who did not (relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.53). Compared with men who did not eat late at night, those who ate late at night had a 55% higher CHD risk (relative risk, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–2.29). These associations were mediated by body mass index, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. No association was observed between eating frequency (times per day) and risk of CHD.
我们在1992年对 26 902名45〜82岁间的美国男性进行了包括吃早餐在内的饮食习惯方面的评估。这些受测者筛选自健康专业随访研究，且均无心血管疾病和癌症。在16年间的随访中，我们诊断了1527例冠心病病例。在调整人口结构，饮食习惯，生活方式和其他可能导致冠心病的危险因素后，我们运用Cox比例风险模型来估计相对风险和有关冠心病（CHD）的95％置信区间。那些不吃早餐的男性比规律吃早餐的男性患冠心病的风险高27％（相对危险度，1.27; 95％可信区间为1.06-1.53）。 而那些有吃夜宵习惯的与男性比不吃夜宵的男性的冠心病风险高55％（相对危险度，1.55; 95％可信区间为1.05-2.29）。这些关联受身体质量指数，高血压，高胆固醇血症和糖尿病等因素的影响。我们没有观察到进食频率（每天次）和患冠心病风险之间有关联。
Eating breakfast was associated with significantly lower CHD risk in this cohort of male health professionals.