唧唧堂编辑二朵2014-01-23 12:04 AM

Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth’s magnetic field 狗敏感于地球磁场的微小变化

Abstract 论文摘要 Introduction Several mammalian species spontaneously align their body axis with respect to the Earth’s magnetic field (MF) lines in diverse behavioral contexts. Magnetic alignment is a suitable paradigm to scan for the occurrence of magnetosensitivity across animal taxa with the heuristic potential to contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of magnetoreception and identify further functions of magnetosensation apart from navigation. With this in mind we searched for signs of magnetic alignment in dogs. We measured the direction of the body axis in 70 dogs of 37 breeds during defecation (1,893 observations) and urination (5,582 observations) over a two-year period. After complete sampling, we sorted the data according to the geomagnetic conditions prevailing during the respective sampling periods. Relative declination and intensity changes of the MF during the respective dog walks were calculated from daily magnetograms. Directional preferences of dogs under different MF conditions were analyzed and tested by means of circular statistics. 介绍: 我们发现在不同的生物行为环境中,许多哺乳动物都会不由自主的使身体的轴心线和地球磁场线保持一致。这种磁校准是一个很合适的研究范式,通过从不同动物群体对”有机体磁感应侦测“发生的概率进行调查后得知“有机体磁场侦测”的原理,以及对除了导航功能之外的其他近一步功能识别有一定的启示作用。对于这些有了基本的认识之后,我们搜集了关于狗对磁场校准的研究数据。在2年的研究时间内,我们测量了37种不同品种的70条狗身体轴心和对磁场线的对比观察( 1893次),排尿观测(5582次)。在完成样本取样后,我们根据一般情况下的地磁条件对采集的样本按样本时间进行分类。根据每天狗散步采样的磁场记录图计算相对偏差和强度变化。通过循环统计数据分析和测试证实下推断出,狗在不同的磁场条件下,身体轴心具有有方向特异性。 Results Dogs preferred to excrete with the body being aligned along the North–South axis under calm MF conditions. This directional behavior was abolished under unstable MF. The best predictor of the behavioral switch was the rate of change in declination, i.e., polar orientation of the MF. 结果: 狗在排尿的时候,身体会偏向和南北磁场轴线方向一致,但在不稳定的磁场情况下这种指向性的行为将不适用,最合理的身体偏向的预测因素是偏差率的变化,比如,极地方向的磁场。 Conclusions It is for the first time that(a) magnetic sensitivity was proved in dogs, (b) a measurable, predictable behavioral reaction upon natural MF fluctuations could be unambiguously proven in a mammal, and (c) high sensitivity to small changes in polarity, rather than in intensity, of MF was identified as biologically meaningful. Our findings open new horizons in magnetoreception research. Since the MF is calm in only about 20% of the daylight period, our findings might provide an explanation why many magnetoreception experiments were hardly replicable and why directional values of records in diverse observations are frequently compromised by scatter. 结论: 这是第一次(a)磁感效益被证实在狗的身上,(b)一个可以测量,可预估的磁感应行为将会别毫无疑问可以使用在其他哺乳动物上证实,(c)比起对于磁场强度的变化,极性的变化将更为灵敏,这使磁场研究被认为在生物学上的意义。我们的发现将会为“有机体磁感应侦测”的研究打开新的大门。由于在白天大约只有20%的时间磁场是保持稳定的,所以我们的发现解释了为什么许多“有机体磁场感应侦测”的实验几乎不能被复制,以及为什么方向值的分布在不同的观测中钟常常是分散的。 Keywords: Magnetoreception; Magnetosensitivity; Magnetic field; Magnetic storm; Magnetic alignment; Dog; Canid; Mammal 关键词:磁接收; 磁灵敏度; 磁场;磁暴;磁定位;狗;犬科动物;哺乳动物






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