唧唧堂编辑二朵2014-02-09 11:20 PM

Same-sex sexual behavior in insects and arachnids: prevalence, causes, and consequences 昆虫和蜘蛛纲动物的同性性行为:发生率,原因和结果

Abstract Same-sex sexual (SSS) behavior represents an evolutionary puzzle: whilst associated costs seem obvious, positive contributions to fitness remain unclear. Various adaptive explanations have been proposed and thorough reviews exist for vertebrates, but a thorough synthesis of causes for SSS behavior in invertebrates is lacking. Here we provide evidence for such behavior in ~110 species of insects and arachnids. Males are more frequently involved in SSS behavior in the laboratory than in the field, and isolation, high density, and exposure to female pheromones increase its prevalence. SSS behavior is often shorter than the equivalent heterosexual behavior. Most cases can be explained via mistaken identification by the active (courting/mounting) male. Adaptive explanations, such as sperm transfer of the mounting male via the mounted one or gaining experience by young males, are of limited general significance. The passive (being courted/mounted) male is sometimes responsible for this “mistake” by releasing sex pheromones or carrying female pheromones that were attached to his cuticle during prior mating activity. Passive males often resist courting/mating attempts. SSS behavior in arthropods is predominantly based on mistaken identification and is probably maintained because the cost of rejecting a valid opportunity to mate with a female is greater than that of mistakenly mating with a male. Many species exhibiting SSS behavior also mate with related species, another case of mistaken identification. Future research should focus on uncovering the situations/contexts in which mistaken identification is more or less costly for males. 论文摘要 同性性行为(SSS)代表了进化之谜:相关成本似乎是显而易见时,我们对符合情理的积极(研究)贡献仍所知甚少。对脊椎动物来说已经有各种恰当解释被提出以及彻底审查被建立,但有关无脊椎动物同性性行为(SSS)产生的原因仍缺乏充分综述。在此我们为大约110种昆虫和蜘蛛的同性性行为(SSS)提供了证据。比起正常环境下,雄性身处实验条件下常更频繁地参与同性性行为(SSS),且当隔绝于,或含有高浓度的(雌性信息素),或暴露于雌性信息素下会增加其同性性行为(SSS)发生率。同性性行为(SSS)的持续过程往往比异性性行为更短。多数情况下可以解释为主动(求偶/交配)雄性一方错误识别了对方性别。比如主动交配雄性方的精子转移至被动交配雄性方,或较年轻方雄性因此获取经验等恰当的解释都具有有限普遍意义。被动雄性方(被交配/被求偶的一方)有时也该对这一“错误”负起责任,因为他们在交配活动前释放了性信息素或携带了雌性信息素,且在自己角质层上携带了这些激素。被动方雄性往往会拒绝对方的求爱/交配尝试。节肢动物中的同性性行为(SSS)主要基于错误的识别,并且这种同性性行为(SSS)可能因为拒绝一个交配雌性有效机会的成本高于错误发生同性交配行为而被保留了下来。许多存在同性性行为(SSS)的物种也会与相邻物种进行交配,即另一种(因交配发生的)错误识别的实例。未来的研究应侧重于揭露雄性发生错误识别时付出成本或多或少较昂贵时的相关情况/环境。

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