PNAS2013-12-02 5:47 AM

Microbial biogeography of wine grapes is conditioned by cultivar, vintage, and climate 酿酒葡萄的微生物生物地理学和葡萄品种,年份和气候相关

Abstract Wine grapes present a unique biogeography model, wherein microbial biodiversity patterns across viticultural zones not only answer questions of dispersal and community maintenance, they are also an inherent component of the quality, consumer acceptance, and economic appreciation of a culturally important food product. On their journey from the vineyard to the wine bottle, grapes are transformed to wine through microbial activity, with indisputable consequences for wine quality parameters. Wine grapes harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the surrounding environment, many of which are recognized for their role in grapevine health and wine quality. However, determinants of regional wine characteristics have not been identified, but are frequently assumed to stem from viticultural or geological factors alone. This study used a high-throughput, short-amplicon sequencing approach to demonstrate that regional, site-specific, and grape-variety factors shape the fungal and bacterial consortia inhabiting wine-grape surfaces. Furthermore, these microbial assemblages are correlated to specific climatic features, suggesting a link between vineyard environmental conditions and microbial inhabitation patterns. Taken together, these factors shape the unique microbial inputs to regional wine fermentations, posing the existence of nonrandom “microbial terroir” as a determining factor in regional variation among wine grapes. 论文摘要 酿酒葡萄呈现一个特别的生物地理学模型,其中跨多个葡萄栽培区的微生物的生物多样性模式不仅回答了扩散和园区维护的问题,也是葡萄质量,用户接受度和文化食品经济附加值的一个内在影响部分。在从葡萄园到酒瓶的旅途中, 葡萄们通过微生物活动转化为了酒,这些微生物作用不可否认地影响着葡萄酒的质量差异。 酿酒葡萄都带着大量的来自周边环境的微生物,它们中的一些是被认为起到帮助葡萄藤健康成长和增强葡萄质量的。虽然葡萄酒地域特性的决定性因素还尚未确定,但是常常被认为是由葡萄栽培和地质因素造成的。 本研究采用了一个高通量,短扩增的测序方法来演绎区域,地点和葡萄品种对附着在酿酒葡萄表面的真菌和细菌团的决定作用。 此外,这些微生物的形成和特定的天气特征相关,这暗示了葡萄园环境状况和附着的微生物品种之间的关系。 总而言之, 这些因素为不同区域的葡萄酒发酵带来了独特的微生物品种, 并且我们认为现有的非随机的“微生物环境”可以作为酿酒葡萄区域差异的一个决定因素。

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