PNAS2013-12-31 11:49 PM

Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction Marcellus 页岩天然气开采点附近部分饮用水井中杂散天然气含量上升的现象

Abstract
Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes <1 km from natural gas wells (P = 0.0006). Ethane was 23 times higher in homes <1 km from gas wells (P = 0.0013); propane was detected in 10 water wells, all within approximately 1 km distance (P = 0.01). Of three factors previously proposed to influence gas concentrations in shallow groundwater (distances to gas wells, valley bottoms, and the Appalachian Structural Front, a proxy for tectonic deformation), distance to gas wells was highly significant for methane concentrations (P = 0.007; multiple regression), whereas distances to valley bottoms and the Appalachian Structural Front were not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P < 0.01). For ethane concentrations, distance to gas wells was the only statistically significant factor (P < 0.005). Isotopic signatures (δ13C-CH4, δ13C-C2H6, and δ2H-CH4), hydrocarbon ratios (methane to ethane and propane), and the ratio of the noble gas 4He to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living <1 km from gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases. 论文摘要 水平钻井和水力压裂技术改变了能源生产,但其对环境的潜在影响仍存在争议。我们分析了整个东北部宾夕法尼亚州的阿巴拉契亚高原省的141口饮用水井,检查了水井中的天然气浓度以及与页岩气井相近的同位素特征。其中我们检测了82%饮用水样品中的甲烷浓度,发现那些距离天然气井1公里内的家庭中检测出的甲烷比平均浓度高出六倍(P = 0.0006),检测出的乙烷则是平均浓度的23倍(P = 0.0013);我们还检测了10个距离在1公里内水井中的丙烷(P = 0.01)。在先前提出的会在浅层地下水中影响气体浓度的三个因素里(分别离开气井,谷底以及阿巴拉契亚山脉正面结构的距离,作为构造变形的替代物),甲烷浓度随离开气井距离而发生显著变化(P = 0.007;多元回归),而受谷底以及阿巴拉契亚山脉正面结构间距离变化的影响不大(P = 0.27和P = 0.11,分别)。 与气井的距离也是在Pearson和Spearman相关分析中最显著的因素(P <0.01)。对于乙烷浓度来说,与气井的距离是唯一具有统计学意义的显著因子(P <0.005)。同位素组成(δ13C-CH4,δ13C-C2H6,和δ2H-CH4),碳氢比(甲烷与乙烷和丙烷),和在地下水中惰性气体4He与甲烷的比率是某些情况下一个过热的类似马塞勒斯来源的特征。总的来说,我们的数据表明一些生活在距离气井1公里以内的家庭一直在饮用含有杂离天然气的水源。

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