BMJ2013-12-26 10:19 PM

Do television and electronic games predict children's psychosocial adjustment? Longitudinal research using the UK Millennium Cohort Study -- Parkes et al. -- Archives of Disease in Childhood 电视和电子游戏能够预测儿童的社会心理调整能力吗?英国千禧代儿童的纵向研究

Abstract Background Screen entertainment for young children has been associated with several aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Most research is from North America and focuses on television. Few longitudinal studies have compared the effects of TV and electronic games, or have investigated gender differences. 背景 面向少年儿童的电视娱乐节目与心理社会过程调整的几个方面都密切相关。对此所做的许多研究都来自北美国家且都着重于关注电视效应,但极少有相关的纵向研究来比较电视和电子游戏产生的影响,或调查探讨影响中的性别差异现象。 Purpose To explore how time watching TV and playing electronic games at age 5 years each predicts change in psychosocial adjustment in a representative sample of 7 year-olds from the UK. 目的 我们尝试探讨一些典型的7岁英国儿童样本在他们在5岁时看电视和玩电子游戏的娱乐时间如何预示未来心理社会过程调整的变化。 Methods Typical daily hours viewing television and playing electronic games at age 5 years were reported by mothers of 11 014 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behavior were reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Change in adjustment from age 5 years to 7 years was regressed on screen exposures; adjusting for family characteristics and functioning, and child characteristics. 方法 英国千禧世代研究计划中,11 014个少儿样本的母亲汇报了孩子在5岁时每天观看电视和玩电子游戏的例行娱乐时间。这些母亲通过回答针对少儿样本优缺点的问卷调查反馈了少儿样本的一系列行为问题,情绪症状,同龄社交障碍等状况。我们在计算机上对少儿样本在5至7岁间表现出的(心理社会过程)调整的变化进行了统计回归,且根据家族特征,影响以及孩子的性格等因素对这些变化进行了调整。 Results Watching TV for 3 h or more at 5 years predicted a 0.13 point increase (95% CI 0.03 to 0.24) in conduct problems by 7 years, compared with watching for under an hour, but playing electronic games was not associated with conduct problems. No associations were found between either type of screen time and emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems or prosocial behaviour. There was no evidence of gender differences in the effect of screen time. 结果 与那些看电视不超过1小时的同龄受测者相比,少儿样本5岁时看电视超过3小时以上预示了将来其7岁时会表现出行为问题的可能性将增长0.13个百分点( 95%CI为0.03〜0.24 ),但研究结果显示玩电子游戏却不会带来类似影响。我们还未发现看电视或玩电子游戏等娱乐时间和情绪症状,多动/注意力不集中症状,同伴社交障碍或亲社会行为之间有任何关联。我们也没有发现看电视和玩电子游戏带来的后果会受性别差异的影响。 Conclusions TV but not electronic games predicted a small increase in conduct problems. Screen time did not predict other aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Further work is required to establish causal mechanisms. 结论 观看电视将可能增加少儿样本未来表现出行为问题的可能性,然而玩电子游戏却不会带来类似后果。观看电视或玩电子游戏等娱乐时间没有预示出少儿样本心理社会过程调整的其他方面。未来我们仍需进行更深入的研究工作来建立因果关系机制。






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