Frontiers in psychology2014-01-22 2:05 AM

Sad music induces pleasant emotion 悲伤音乐催生快乐情绪

Abstract
In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. 论文摘要 通常来说,悲伤音乐被认为会唤起我们对忧伤的共鸣,带来不愉快的体验。这引起了一个疑问,即如果这种音乐风格会唤起悲伤,那为何我们还对它喜爱不已?一个可能的答案是,当我们听悲伤音乐时,实际感受到的反而是积极情绪。这一假设看似违反直觉;然而通过将音乐情绪细分成感知情绪和感觉情绪,我们在本研究中调查了这种针对音乐所产生的潜在情绪反应。我们推测感觉和感知情绪实际上在这方面可能并不重合:即忧伤音乐被视为是伤心的,但听伤感音乐的体验会唤起积极的情绪。共有44名参与者听了音乐选段,且从感知和感觉情绪两方面给出了评分数据,即按0-4分的评分标准给62个有关情绪的描述性词汇或短语评分。该结果显示,与受测者们对相同音乐的实际感知相比,在实验中他们对忧郁音乐的感知更悲惨,然而听伤感音乐的实际体验却使他们内心感到更浪漫,更愉快,且带有更少的悲惨情绪。因此参与者们在听伤感音乐的经历中体验了一种矛盾的情绪。考虑到听众可能是在诱导下通过听伤感音乐经历了情感上的矛盾体验,我们得出结论:必须形成新模式来检验这种由音乐诱导产生的情绪以及这种新模式必须包含这种可能性,即我们在听音乐时所经历的情绪和实验情绪应是同样的。

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