PLOS ONE2014-02-24 5:17 PM

发现自巴西的淡水江豚新品种:我们对生物多样性所知甚少 A New Species of River Dolphin from Brazil or: How Little Do We Know Our Biodiversity 

论文摘要 
真正的淡水豚属于所有脊椎动物中最稀有濒危的物种。它们拥有具有高分类差异和保护价值的进化谱系残存,但只受到极少的保护。我们发现了来自巴西阿拉瓜亚河流域的淡水江豚新品种,这是近百年来首次发现该新物种。在一系列分子和形态特征诊断后,我们断定该品种是亚马逊淡水豚的姊妹类,它早在2.08万年前就和亚马逊淡水江豚分道扬镳。它分化开始的估计时间与亚马逊河流域阿拉瓜亚-托坎廷斯州盆地的分离基本同步。这一发现提醒了我们对新热带生物多样性认知的匮乏,以及对生物物种在日益遭受人类活动威胁影响所表现出生物多样性的脆弱性的忽视。我们预计这项研究将为阿拉瓜亚和亚马逊的水生生态系统间共有的其他类群的分类和保护再分析提供动力,且能刺激对两个盆地生物地理学的历史分析。

Abstract 
True river dolphins are some of the rarest and most endangered of all vertebrates. They comprise relict evolutionary lineages of high taxonomic distinctness and conservation value, but are afforded little protection. We report the discovery of a new species of a river dolphin from the Araguaia River basin of Brazil, the first such discovery in nearly 100 years. The species is diagnosable by a series of molecular and morphological characters and diverged from its Amazonian sister taxon 2.08 million years ago. The estimated time of divergence corresponds to the separation of the Araguaia-Tocantins basin from the Amazon basin. This discovery highlights the immensity of the deficit in our knowledge of Neotropical biodiversity, as well as vulnerability of biodiversity to anthropogenic actions in an increasingly threatened landscape. We anticipate that this study will provide an impetus for the taxonomic and conservation reanalysis of other taxa shared between the Araguaia and Amazon aquatic ecosystems, as well as stimulate historical biogeographical analyses of the two basins. 

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