Nature2014-02-24 5:24 PM

从树上到陆地:婆罗洲猩猩的陆上活动是自发还是受干扰驱使而出现的? Coming down from the trees: Is terrestrial activity in Bornean orangutans natural or disturbance driven? 

论文摘要 
猩猩是世界上最大的树栖哺乳动物,红猿在热带森林树冠间的穿梭表征了其典型的树栖行为。陆地行为记录十分稀缺且往往与栖息地受干扰有关。基于地面照相机所获数据,我们进行了大规模物种层面上的分析来评估婆罗洲红毛猩猩从树间转战陆地探险的程度范围,以及它们是否实际上主要是因受人为森林干扰而开始地面活动的。虽然森林受干扰程度和树冠间隙规模影响着地面活动,但我们记录到的猩猩活动在严重退化的栖息地与在原始森林一样频繁。此外,所有年龄性别的群体都有地面记录(边境男性出现更频繁)。这表明比以前所认为程度更高的地面活动是婆罗洲猩猩的自然行为技能,且仅受栖息地干扰的修正。从树上下来的猩猩的能力可能会增加他们对至少小规模森林生境片断化的应对能力并能在间或适宜的林间空地穿梭,虽然这种机动性程度还有待调查。 

Abstract 
The orangutan is the world's largest arboreal mammal, and images of the red ape moving through the tropical forest canopy symbolise its typical arboreal behaviour. Records of terrestrial behaviour are scarce and often associated with habitat disturbance. We conducted a large-scale species-level analysis of ground-based camera-trapping data to evaluate the extent to which Bornean orangutans Pongo pygmaeus come down from the trees to travel terrestrially, and whether they are indeed forced to the ground primarily by anthropogenic forest disturbances. Although the degree of forest disturbance and canopy gap size influenced terrestriality, orangutans were recorded on the ground as frequently in heavily degraded habitats as in primary forests. Furthermore, all age-sex classes were recorded on the ground (flanged males more often). This suggests that terrestrial locomotion is part of the Bornean orangutan's natural behavioural repertoire to a much greater extent than previously thought, and is only modified by habitat disturbance. The capacity of orangutans to come down from the trees may increase their ability to cope with at least smaller-scale forest fragmentation, and to cross moderately open spaces in mosaic landscapes, although the extent of this versatility remains to be investigated. 

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