随着领导者在他们的群体中追求更有权利的位置，他们面临越来越高的要求。 这使得人们普遍认为领导者比非领导者具有更高的压力水平。 但是如果领导者同时在增强控制的认知－一个已知的具有强大压力缓冲作用的心理因素－领导将伴随降低的压力水平。 利用真正领导人包括军官和政府官员的独特样本， 我们发现，和非领导人相比，领导人具有较低的压力荷尔蒙皮质醇以及较低的焦虑值。 在第二个研究中，我们发现处于更高权利的位置的领导比那些处于较低权利的位置的领导人表现出更低的皮质醇水平以及更低的焦虑值，这种关系可以用更强大的控制认知来解释。 总而言之，这些发现揭示了一个清晰的领导力和压力之间的关系：领导力水平和压力负相关。
As leaders ascend to more powerful positions in their groups, they face ever-increasing demands. This has given rise to the common perception that leaders have higher stress levels than non-leaders. But if leaders also experience a heightened sense of control—a psychological factor known to have powerful stress-buffering effects—leadership should be associated with reduced stress levels. Using unique samples of real leaders, including military officers and government officials, we found that, compared to non-leaders, leaders had lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol and lower reports of anxiety (Study 1). In a second study, leaders holding more powerful positions exhibited lower cortisol levels and less anxiety than leaders holding less powerful positions, a relationship explained significantly by their greater sense of control. Altogether, these findings reveal a clear relationship between leadership and stress, with leadership level being inversely related to stress.