PLOS ONE2014-03-11 11:30 PM

Understanding Public Opinion in Debates over Biomedical Research: Looking beyond Political Partnership to Focus on Beliefs about Science and Society  理解公众对于医药生物研究争论的看法:超越政治合作关系视角来看人们对于科学与社会的态度

Abstract
As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.
论文摘要
随着社会学家调查影响公众关于与科技相关的政策争论的看法的政治以及社会因素,对于这项关于公众交流及其延展效果的研究其背后蕴含的深意,科学家们的关注度日益增长。就美国其政治极化的程度而言,大部分关注都集中在由于公众舆论而产生的党派分歧、政治领袖及其拥泵为了强化这些分歧而采取的策略以及防止这些分歧消除所提出的对策。然而给予党派分歧的关注却有忽视一些方面的趋势。之一是其忽视了科学与社会的核心理念是如何影响公众舆论的这一过程;其次就是那些计划经常是如何由根植于媒体报道以及流行语的特定参照标准而产生激活。在这项研究中,通过分析2002-2010年间所收集的横截面性质的、有全国代表性的调查数据,我们考察了政治党派和科技相关的计划这两者在美国人民对于胚胎干细胞这项研究的支持方面所带来的相对影响力。与党派身份所带来的影响相比,结果表明关于科学与社会的普遍信念在涉及媒体关注的焦点事件上呈现出更持久、波动更小的特征,而在公众舆论方面整体上影响更大。根据调查对象对于科学与社会的信念,我们将其划分为四类不同的受众。此外,我们发现每一个受众类群中的个人就其党派性而言差别相对均匀但是在一些关键方面分歧很明显。公众参与以及今后有关与医药生物科学相关争论的研究这两个方面可能引起的后果在下文也会有所讨论。

KEYWORDS

SHARE & LIKE

COMMENTS

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

PLOS ONE

0 Following 5 Fans 0 Projects 90 Articles

SIMILAR ARTICLES

AbstractAgencies that fund scientific research must choose: is it more effective to give large grants to a few elite researchers, or small grants to ma

Read More

Abstract The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food product

Read More

Abstract 论文摘要 Background Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly increased survival among HIV-positive adults in the United State

Read More

AbstractThe U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) budget expansion from 1998 through 2003 increased demand for biomedical research, raising relative

Read More

Abstract Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning “cute”) things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains

Read More

Abstract The diversity of life is one of the most striking aspects of our planet; hence knowing how many species inhabit Earth is among the most funda

Read More

Abstract Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be le

Read More

Abstract Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis ind

Read More