唧唧堂编辑二朵2014-03-31 12:53 PM

马铃薯早晚疫病的综合化学防控技术体系的建立 A study to establish a comprehensive system of chemical control techniques for Potato early blight and late blight disease

论文摘要


马铃薯早、晚疫病是马铃薯生产过程中两种普遍发生、危害严重的病害,给马铃薯生产造成巨大损失。目前,在抗病品种缺乏、农业措施不能显著防控病害的前提下,化学药防控是最直接、最有效的手段和方法。本研究主要在前期室内药剂筛选基础上,进行马铃薯早、晚疫病化学防控田间药剂筛选和综合化学防控技术的研究,以期获得在田间防控马铃薯早、晚疫病效果良好的药剂,并建立起马铃薯早晚疫病的综合化学防控技术体系,为当地农民防控马铃薯早、晚疫病提供技术服务和指导,以最大限度地减轻这两种主要病害对马铃薯产量造成的损失。此外,我们还在室内测定2013年采自内蒙古地区的30株晚疫病菌的药剂敏感性。本研究的主要结果如下: 

1. 在防控马铃薯早疫病的百菌清、丙环•嘧菌酯、嘧菌酯、嘧菌•百菌清、春雷•王铜、丙环唑和戊唑醇等7种药剂的筛选试验中,使用丙环•嘧菌酯、嘧菌酯、嘧菌•百菌清的处理区与对照相比,最终防效为98.90%、98.40%和97.64%,在产量方面增产效果明显,亩增产分别为357.34kg、282.68kg和298.68 kg,增产率分别为13.56%、10.53%和11.34%。 

2. 从3套早疫病化学防控方案中,筛选出了1套最佳的施药方案。该方案整个生长季喷施五次药剂,在成株期病害发生前进行初次施药(6月23日),施药间隔10-20d,用药顺序为进富(代森锰锌)、易保(噁唑菌酮)、青岚(嘧菌酯)、扑海因(异菌脲)、和拿敌稳(肟菌•戊唑醇),该方案亩产量为3085.4 kg,亩增产量为346.8kg,大薯增产率为12.67%,每亩增加经济效益最高为252.2元,最后一次施药后7天防效为93.62%。 

3.不同施氮梯度对马铃薯早疫病发生影响的研究结果表明:氮素在一定使用范围内对于早疫病的发生会起到一定抑制的作用,对于产量的影响没有明显差异。 

4. 在防控马铃薯晚疫病的氰霜唑、苦参碱、烯酰•唑嘧菌、唑醚•代森联和丁子香酚等5种药剂筛选试验中,使用烯酰•唑嘧菌和氰霜唑防治马铃薯晚疫病的处理区与对照相比最终防效为94.54%和94.18%,在产量方面增产效果明显,亩增产分别为407.1kg和479.8kg,增产率分别为17.41%和20.42%,显著高于使用其他药剂的增产率。 

5. 从3套晚疫病化学防控方案中,筛选出了1套最佳的施药方案。该方案整个生长季喷施五次药剂,在田间发现晚疫病中心病株开始施药,按照马铃薯晚疫病预报预测进行施药。用药顺序为山德生(代森锰锌)、抑快净(噁酮•霜脲氰)、银法利(氟菌•霜霉威)、瑞凡(双炔酰菌胺)和百泰(唑醚•代森联),其亩增产量687.6kg,大薯增产率为37.33%,亩增加经济效益最高为872.8元,最后一次施药后7天防效为90.95%。 

6. 所测定的30株晚疫病菌株中,50%烯酰吗啉的平均EC50值为(0.1022±0.0053)μg/mL,68.75%氟菌•霜霉威的平均EC50值为(2.8573±0.1041)μg/mL,全部为甲霜灵抗性菌株。 


Abstracts


Potato early blight and late blight, two general occurrences are an endangering serious disease in potato production which is causing enormous losses in potato stocks. At present, strictly regulated chemical control is the most effective and directly employed method used, under the premise of lack of resistant varieties and agricultural measures cannot control the disease significantly enough. In this study, on the basis of former indoor drug screening conducted on the potato, early blight and late blight and the comprehensive prevention and control technology of chemicals are used in order to obtain effective agents of early and late blight and establish the comprehensive system of control techniques and providing technical services and guidance for local farmers to minimize the loss of potato production by these two major diseases. In addition, we also conducted the sensitivity of antiseptic to 30 Phytophthora infestans collected from Inner Mongolia and measured these strains resistance of Metalaxyl. The main results of the study are as follows:

1. Firstly, in the screening tests of seven kinds of antiseptic named Chlorothalonil, Propiconazole and Azoxystrobin, Azoxystrobin, Azoxystrobin and Chlorothalonil, Kasugamycin and Copperoxychloride, Propiconazole, Tebucoazole etc. It was found that for potato early blight, the last control efficiency of treatment area was 98.90%, 98.40% and 97.64% and the efficiency of yield increase was significantly higher. The potatoes which are treated by Azoxystrobin, Propiconazole and Azoxystrobin and Azoxystrobin and Chlorothalonil when compared with the previous it was found their increasing yield was 357.34kg/667m2,282.68kg/667m2 and 298.68 kg/667m2, respectively. Also the increasing percentages of yield were 13.56%, 10.53% and 11.34%.

2. Next, the study screened out the best set of a spraying program from three sets of chemical prevention programs of early blight. They were sprayed five times in the growing season; the first time of spraying in the adult stage (June23), the interval of spraying was 10-20d. The order is Jinfu (Mancozeb), Famoxate (Famoxadone), Qinglan (Azoxystrobin), Rovral (Iprodione), Nativo (Trifloxystrobin • tebuconazole). It was found that the yield of this program was 3085.4kg, the increasing yield was 346.8kg and the increase in the commodity of the potato was 12.67% compared with CK, the increase in economic benefits was 252.2 Yuan and the last control efficiency was 93.62%. 

3. In addition, the results of potato early blight occurring when it is treated by different gradient of nitrogen suggested that a certain scope use of nitrogen could actually suppress the occurrence of early blight and that there was no significant difference in the ultimate yield.

4. Furthermore, in the screening tests of five kinds of antiseptic named Cyazofamid, Matrine, Dimethomorph and Initium, Yl-ethyl and metiram and Eugenol etc. It was held that for potato late blight, the last control efficiency of Dimethomorph and Initium and Cyazofamid were 94.54% and 94.18% compared with the others and the increasing yields were 407.1kg/667m2 and 479.8 kg/667m2, respectively. The increasing percentages of yield were 17.41% and 20.42%, the increasing percentages were significantly higher than compared with other treatments.

5.  Also, one integrated effective spraying program we selected from three sets of programs, with spraying taking place five times during the growing season, according to potato late blight forecasts, spraying when the centre strain was found in the field. The order is Shandesheng (Mancozeb), Equation pro (Famoxadone•Cymoxanil), Infinito (Fluopicolide•propamocab hydrochloride), Revus (Mandipropamid) and Baitai (Yl-ethyl and metiram). The increasing yield of this program was 687.6kg, the increase in the commodity of the potato was 37.33% compared with CK and the increase of economic benefits was 872.8 Yuan and the last control efficiency was 90.95%.

6. Finally, the average EC50 value of 50% Dimethomorph was (0.1022±0.0053)μg/mL and the EC50 value 68.75%Fludioxonil & Propamocarb was (2.8573±0.1041)μg/mL to the tested 30 strains of late blight, all of strains were found to have sufficent resistance to Metalaxyl.

KEYWORDS

SHARE & LIKE

COMMENTS

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

唧唧堂编辑二朵

jijitang editor flower 2

1 Following 7 Fans 0 Projects 149 Articles

SIMILAR ARTICLES

Abstract Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, a

Read More

Abstract Recent research in cognitive and developmental neuroscience is providing a new approach to the understanding of dyscalculia that emphasizes

Read More

Abstract Reprogramming somatic cells into pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been envisioned as an ap

Read More

Abstract Human collective behavior can vary from calm to panicked depending on social context. Using videos publicly available online, we study the hi

Read More

Abstract PurposeTo determine the contents of chicken nuggets from 2 national food chains. 目的 确定从2个全国食品连锁店获得的鸡块的内容。 BackgroundChicken nuggets have b

Read More

Abstract 论文摘要 Background Among adults, skipping meals is associated with excess body weight, hypertension, insulin resistance, and elevated fasting

Read More

AbstractTo the authors' knowledge, the role of restaurant menus as a vehicle for pathogens has not been explored. Menus, however, can pose as a vector

Read More

Maarten A. S. Boksem, PhDAbstractAlthough much progress has been made in relating brain activations to choice behaviour, evidence that neural measures

Read More