唧唧堂编辑二朵2014-04-08 12:55 PM

民法的正当行为研究 Study of Righteous Behavior in civil war

论文摘要:

见义勇为自古即为社会所倡导鼓励,然当今社会见义勇为行为更需要民法予以保护规制,不能是的倡导的美德与法律底线冲突,也不能使得倡导的美德不为法律所保护,于此,笔者从多年来的见义勇为相关案例入手,对见义勇为进行民法解读。
 
全文主要分为五个部分:
第一部分主要通过两则不同年度的案例进行比较和对一些司法案例的总结引出问题,包括对见义勇为行为的定义不统一、相关法律适用不统一等等。
第二部分系对见义勇为进行民法界定,通过对地方立法的总结、对关于见义勇为性质的各学说解读,包括无因管理说、制止侵权说、正当防卫与紧急避险说等,得出支持见义勇为可纳入紧急无因管理的理论依据并进行解析。并对见义勇为行为当事人之间的法律关系进行解读,将见义勇为行为分为有侵害人的见义勇为和无侵害人的见义勇为。
第三部分系对见义勇为人受到损害进行解读,对见义勇为人受到损害之救济措施分为向受益人请求及向侵害人请求。在向受益人请求之时,以案例群为基础,将其请求权的司法判例分为两类,一是见义勇为人向受益人以《民法通则》第93条及《民通意见》第132条规定的无因管理请求偿付实际损失,二是见义勇为人依照《侵权责任法》23条、《人损解释》第15条、《民法通则》第109条、《民通意见》第142条规定向受益人请求适当补偿。同时,在此部分将见义勇为人向侵害人请求与向受益人请求之关系予以解析。
第四部分则是见义勇为人造成损害之承担。此部分以各主体为分类标准,将见义勇为人对受益人、无辜第三人、侵害人造成的损害予以分别解读。在对受益人造成损害之时,阐述比较法上紧急无因管理关于“故意或重大过失”标准的合理性,在对无辜第三人造成损害之时,考虑自然原因引起的险情下牺牲请求权的存在,在对侵害人造成损害时考虑正当防卫的成立与否。同时,将见义勇为人承担损害责任后与受益人对见义勇为行为造成的损害的终局承担予以解析。
第五部分即对我国见义勇为相关法律的罗列解读,借助比较法和案例群最终对我国见义勇为相关的民法适用运用法律解释方法提出建议。见义勇为人造成损害时,分别对见义勇为人对(非侵权人的)第三人造成损害、对侵权人造成损害的、被救助人造成损害的法律适用提出建议。在在见义勇为人受到损害时,也对存在侵权人和不存在侵权人的情形下见义勇为人对受益人及对侵权人的请求权予以解读。并提出,适用“适当补偿”之规定与见义勇为行为纳入无因管理并不冲突,在考虑“适当补偿”之额度时可将“无因管理之必要费用”纳入考量。

关键词:见义勇为 无因管理 适当补偿 侵权责任

Abstract :

Righteous behavior has been advocated since time immemorial. However, nowadays righteous behavior requires protection and stipulation from civil law. As an advocated virtue righteous behavior should not conflict with the bottom line of law and should always be under protection of the law. Therefore, this study will start by looking at righteous behavior cases that took place in recent years and then it will turn to the task of analyzing righteous behavior in civil law.

This study includes the following five parts:
Firstly, by mainly comparing two cases that took place in different years and by summarizing some other judicial cases, this study will highlight problems related to righteous behavior, such as the various definitions for righteous behavior and explain that the law adjustment cannot be unified.

Secondly, this study will discuss legal interpretation and classification concerning righteous behavior. By summarizing local legislations and analyzing theories about the nature of righteous behavior, such as spontaneous agency theory, avoid infringement theory, self defense theory and act of rescue theory. I found a theory basis which supports the argument that righteous behavior could be part of emergency spontaneous agency and then I did further analysis. I will also analyze legal nexus between parties that are involved in righteous behavior, thus dividing righteous behavior into two categories: righteous behavior that has an infringer involved and righteous behavior that has no infringer involved. 

Part three, consists of analyzing a situation where the righteous behavior volunteer is injured. A volunteer can request compensation from a beneficiary and infringer when he was injured by righteous behavior. When it turns to a beneficiary, based on cases, I will divide the judicial precedent of the volunteer's right to request into two categories: firstly, a volunteer requests that the beneficiary is to pay the actual loss based on the negotiorum gestio requirement that is described in article 93 in <> and article 132 in <>. Secondly, a volunteer may request that the beneficiary is to make an adequate compensation scheme based on the description from article 23 in <>, article 15 in <>, article 109 in <> and article 142 in <>. Meanwhile, I will analyze the relationship between the situation where a volunteer can request the infringer and the situation where a volunteer request the beneficiary.

In part four, I will analyze the responsibility to injury caused by a volunteer that launched righteous behavior.  In order to take involved parties as classification criterion this part will respectively analyze injury caused to the beneficiary, to a innocent third party and to the infringer. When there is damage caused to the beneficiary, present emergency negotiorum gestio, when damage is caused to the innocent third party, consider a circumstance in which abandoning the right to request while the righteous behavior is taking place under danger caused by natural factor.  While in the case of injury caused to the infringer consider whether there would be a possibility of self-defence to exist.

Part five, is to list and analyze regulations related to righteous behavior in China. This will be supported by both comparison and established legal cases. Finally, I will propose suggestions for legal applications to the civil laws that are related to righteous behavior with methods of law interpretation. When a volunteer causes injury, I will propose various suggestions respectively for judicial practices for three circumstances: Firstly, when a volunteer causes injury to an innocent third party, secondly when a volunteer causes injury to the infringer, and thirdly when a volunteer causes injury to the beneficiary. When a volunteer is injured because of the righteous behavior, I will analyze the volunteer's requirement to the beneficiary and infringer under circumstances that the infringer exists and circumstances that no infringer exists. Also, I will present that applying "adequate compensation" does not conflict when classifying righteous behavior to negotiorum gestio, so it is reasonable to include "necessary expenses for negotiorum gestio" while calculating credit of "adequate compensation". 

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唧唧堂编辑二朵

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