Stephanie E. Pierce2014-05-06 2:36 PM

四足变形演化运动的历史视角 Historical perspectives on the evolution of tetrapodomorph movement.

论文摘要

在过去一个世纪中,各种现代类似生物已被用来推断躯干四足动物和他们鱼类祖先运动表现的演变且获得了不同的成功。 在此,我们对这些从软骨鱼类到哺乳动物的现代类似生物进行了系统发育审查,这强调了脊椎动物类群和运动行为的广泛谱系。我们对由水到陆地过渡早期阶段中的现代类似生物背后的利弊也进行了讨论。尤其值得注意的是,关于运动的任何假设不仅必须有存活动物的证据支持而且也必须与化石记录中的特征变更一致。因此我们建议强调灭绝类群不该做什么而不是专注于他们运作细节的“整体-证据”方法。我们对该方法的一个例子,即负责调查现代半水栖动物和泥盆纪躯干四足鱼石螈肢体关节活动性进行了详述。我们认为鱼石螈不具有现代四足动物的各种活动行为,但也可能具有可见于活弹涂鱼中的前肢“支撑”运动。我们通过和与鱼石螈的四肢关节形态和相关活动性的解剖比较来对其他已知泥盆纪躯干四足动物的移动可能性进行了评估,且发现他们之间颇为相似。


Abstract

Over the past century, various modern analogs have been used to infer the evolution of locomotor performance in stem tetrapods and their fish ancestors, with varying success. Here, we conduct a phylogenetic review of these modern analogs, from chondrichthyans to mammals, highlighting the broad spectrum of vertebrate clades and locomotor behaviors. The pros and cons behind utilizing modern analogs for the early stages of the transition from water to land also are discussed. In particular, it is noted that any hypothesis about locomotion not only must be supported by evidence from living animals but must also be consistent with character transformations in the fossil record. A "total-evidence" approach that emphasizes what extinct taxa could not do, rather than focusing on the specifics of how they functioned, is thus recommended. An example of this approach, which investigates mobility of the limb joints in modern semi-aquatic animals and in the Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega, is detailed. We propose that various locomotion behaviors of modern quadrupeds can be ruled out for Ichthyostega, but that forelimb "crutching" motions, as seen in living mudskippers, may have been possible. The potential for movement in other known Devonian stem tetrapods is assessed through an anatomical comparison of limb joint morphology-and associated mobility-with Ichthyostega, and deemed to have been quite similar.

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Stephanie E. Pierce

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