唧唧堂编辑二朵2014-05-14 4:54 PM

中国的住房和国家 Housing and the State in China

论文摘要


中国住房制度在过去30年中已经从公共房屋占主导转变为蓬勃发展的私人房屋所有权占主导。“大爆炸”方法在1998年被采纳来终结实物住房分配。2001-2005年间中国城市见证了房地产市场的蓬勃发展,并从中浮现了住房负担能力的问题。房屋抵押贷款使中等收入家庭得益,有的甚至投机于房价上涨。由于历史遗留问题,住房使用权在中国相当复杂。普遍趋势是国家已撤销了住房供给。然而,国家仍然在积极调节住房市场,因为房地产投机可能会导致金融风险。各种政策已颁布用来对抗房地产的繁荣,但(由于地方政府在土地售卖中的深度介入原因)在现实中这些政策的效果并不理想。房屋重建引发了某些社会不满情绪。不久国家介入其中强加了房屋拆迁条件用来减少这些冲突。一个主要问题是农民住房。移民通常完全依赖于城郊地区所谓城中村所提供的私人房屋租赁。


Abstract


The Chinese housing system has transformed from one dominated by public housing to one with thriving private homeownership in the last 30 years. A ‘big bang’ approach was adopted in 1998 to end in-kind allocation of housing. Chinese cities witnessed a housing boom from 2001 to 2005, which raised the issue of housing affordability. Housing mortgages benefited middle-income households, and some even speculated on the rising house prices. Because of the historical legacies, housing tenure in China is quite complicated. The general trend is that the state has retreated from housing provision. However, the state is still actively regulating housing markets, because real-estate speculation can lead to financial risks. Various policies have been enacted to counter the real-estate boom but in reality – because of the deep involvement of the local governments in land sales – these policies have not been very effective. Housing redevelopment triggered some social discontent. Soon the state stepped in to impose some conditions on housing demolition to reduce these conflicts. One major problem is migrant housing. Migrants are entirely dependent upon private rentals, which are usually supplied through so-called urban villages in periurban areas. 

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