Science2014-05-19 4:34 PM

螳螂虾的另类色觉形式  A Different Form of Color Vision in Mantis Shrimp

论文摘要

动物界最复杂的眼睛可以在物种口足类甲壳动物(濑尿虾)中找到,其中一些有12种不同类型的光感受器,每种各取样较窄的一组波长,范围包含了深紫外光到远红光(300到720纳米)。在功能上,这种彩色复杂性被视作是谜。当3种或4种色彩通道对色彩辨认来说已经足够时,为何要使用12种色彩通道?对口足类动物行为波长鉴别试验(Δλ功能)揭示了惊人的不佳表现,这排除了利用传统对立色编码系统的色彩视觉。相反,我们的实验表明,口足类动物使用了前所未知的 基于时间信号并结合扫描眼球运动的彩色视觉系统,这其实是一种颜色识别而非辨别。 

Abstract 

One of the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom can be found in species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimp), some of which have 12 different photoreceptor types, each sampling a narrow set of wavelengths ranging from deep ultraviolet to far red (300 to 720 nanometers). Functionally, this chromatic complexity has presented a mystery. Why use 12 color channels when three or four are sufficient for fine color discrimination? Behavioral wavelength discrimination tests (Δλ functions) in stomatopods revealed a surprisingly poor performance, ruling out color vision that makes use of the conventional color-opponent coding system. Instead, our experiments suggest that stomatopods use a previously unknown color vision system based on temporal signaling combined with scanning eye movements, enabling a type of color recognition rather than discrimination.

Editor's Summary

Living Technicolor 

Color vision is generally carried out through the number of photoreceptor types found in the retina. The mantis shrimps (stomatopods) can have up to 12 photoreceptors, far more than needed for even extreme color acuity. Thoen et al. (p. 411; see the Perspective by Land and Osorio) conducted paired color discrimination tests with stomatopods and found that their ability to discriminate among colors was surprisingly low. Instead, stomatopods appear to use a color identification approach that results from a temporal scan of an object across the 12 photoreceptor sensitivities. This entirely unique form of vision would allow for extremely rapid color recognition without the need to discriminate between wavelengths within a spectrum. 

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论文摘要动物界最复杂的眼睛可以在物种口足类甲壳动物(濑尿虾)中找到,其中一些有12种不同类型的光感受器,每种各取样较窄的一组波长,范围包含了深紫外光到远红光(300到720纳米)。在功能上,这种彩色复杂性被视作是谜。当3种或4种色彩通道对色彩辨认来说已经足够时,为何要使用12种色彩通道?对口足类动物行

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