PLOS ONE2014-05-22 3:02 PM

尼安德特人的消亡:对现代人种优势复杂性的考古分析 Neandertal Demise: An Archaeological Analysis of the Modern Human Superiority Complex

论文摘要

尼安德特人是所有已灭绝古人类中被研究得最透彻的,有关它的化石记录十分丰富,样本达到上百个人,含括了35万至4万年前的时间范围。自葡萄牙西部到中亚阿尔泰地区东部,自北海海域之下的北部到以色列洞穴系的南部,其独特的化石遗骸均找到了踪迹。自30多万年前兴盛于欧亚大陆起,尼安德特人在现代人类进入欧洲的大约4万年前又从记录中消失。现代人种通常在很大区域范围内被认为占据着优势,比如包括武器装备和生存策略,这些都可能导致了尼安德特人的消失。尼安德特人和同一时期现代人种考古记录的系统审查没有发现支持这一解释的证据,因为尼安德特人的考古记录没有足够特别到能解释这种表现为考古学中可见域劣势的消亡。与之相反,当前遗传数据表明杂交和同化的复杂过程可能能够解释特定尼安德特人在化石记录中的形态消失。

Abstract

Neandertals are the best-studied of all extinct hominins, with a rich fossil record sampling hundreds of individuals, roughly dating from between 350,000 and 40,000 years ago. Their distinct fossil remains have been retrieved from Portugal in the west to the Altai area in central Asia in the east and from below the waters of the North Sea in the north to a series of caves in Israel in the south. Having thrived in Eurasia for more than 300,000 years, Neandertals vanished from the record around 40,000 years ago, when modern humans entered Europe. Modern humans are usually seen as superior in a wide range of domains, including weaponry and subsistence strategies, which would have led to the demise of Neandertals. This systematic review of the archaeological records of Neandertals and their modern human contemporaries finds no support for such interpretations, as the Neandertal archaeological record is not different enough to explain the demise in terms of inferiority in archaeologically visible domains. Instead, current genetic data suggest that complex processes of interbreeding and assimilation may have been responsible for the disappearance of the specific Neandertal morphology from the fossil record.

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