Science2014-06-10 1:44 PM

加州大学提出有效保护本土物种又可控制入侵物种的新框架 Optimal approaches for balancing invasive species eradication and endangered species management

论文摘要 

Adam Lampert及其同事研究了在2005-2011年间从加州旧金山根除某特定入侵植物——杂交互花米草——的举措。该根除工作导致了某本土鸟类--联邦政府定的濒危的加州长嘴秧鸡--的急剧减少,该类鸟已经变得依赖该入侵的互花米草来筑巢及觅食。 

该问题与其它的相互对立的生态系统管理目标类似——如在保护海洋物种的同时维持渔业或在保护栖息地的同时采伐木材等,因此Lampert与他的团队将该类鸟与植物物种进行了分开的思考。同时使用基于实地的数据及经济数据,研究人员在尽可能保持低成本的同时研发出了一种旨在根除入侵互花米草并恢复本土长嘴秧鸡的最佳管理策略。 

他们所得到的管理策略包括3个阶段:根除入侵的互花米草直到长嘴秧鸡的栖息地变得有限,重新建立本土的互花米草直到它能对某些长嘴秧鸡提供支持,及最后清除剩余的入侵互花米草植物。研究人员的该框架表明,最有效的管理及恢复项目需要有较长的时间尺度而不是仅仅聚焦于根除某入侵物种。 

由Yvonne Buckley 和Yi Han撰写的一篇《观点栏目》文章更为详细地讨论了这一框架并提出,它可帮助生态环境保护者在源于从某生态系统中根除某入侵物种时通常不可预计的冲突中找到正确的行动方向。 

Abstract 

Resolving conflicting ecosystem management goals—such as maintaining fisheries while conserving marine species or harvesting timber while preserving habitat—is a widely recognized challenge. Even more challenging may be conflicts between two conservation goals that are typically considered complementary. Here, we model a case where eradication of an invasive plant, hybrid Spartina, threatens the recovery of an endangered bird that uses Spartina for nesting. Achieving both goals requires restoration of native Spartina. We show that the optimal management entails less intensive treatment over longer time scales to fit with the time scale of natural processes. In contrast, both eradication and restoration, when considered separately, would optimally proceed as fast as possible. Thus, managers should simultaneously consider multiple, potentially conflicting goals, which may require flexibility in the timing of expenditures. 

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