Science2014-06-10 1:51 PM

古老的珊瑚塑造了现代鱼种的丰度 Quaternary coral reef refugia preserved fish diversity

论文摘要 

研究人员说,当今的印度-澳大利亚鱼种是世界上最多元的鱼种之一,而这与那里的珊瑚礁不无关系;这些珊瑚礁为这些鱼的先祖提供了数百万年来气候变化的避难所。这一发现提示,珊瑚礁不只是在环境变化时保护各个物种;它们还会塑造未来的物种多元化格局。相关文章发表于2014年5月30日《science》杂志上。

Loïc Pellissier及其同事用来自印度-澳大利亚群岛——这是在澳大利亚与东南亚大陆之间的一个岛链——的沉积物岩芯来重构过去3百万年中地球的该地区珊瑚的分布。他们接着用全球6316种不同的珊瑚礁鱼类的分布数据来为第四纪时期(即260万年前到现在)的物种丰度的历史性格局建模。

研究人员特别关注了3个鱼科--雀鲷、隆头鱼和蝴蝶鱼--并发现,在这段时期中,与珊瑚礁隔离而造成的对鱼类生物多元性的影响要胜于其它任何因子,其中包括海平面的温度。据Pellissier及其同事披露,在第四纪中地球经历了至少30次的重复的冷却与暖化的冰期-间冰期周期,但环绕印度-澳大利亚群岛的水体至始至终保持了广泛的珊瑚礁。

他们说,这一珊瑚礁走廊充当了一个幸存中心,它证明了在解释所观察到的现代物种分布时历史上的栖息地可以与当前的栖息地一样重要。鉴于他们的发现,研究人员提出,珊瑚保育策略应关注对与这类历史性栖息地有联系的珊瑚礁的保护。

Abstract 

The most prominent pattern in global marine biogeography is the biodiversity peak in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Yet the processes that underpin this pattern are still actively debated. By reconstructing global marine paleoenvironments over the past 3 million years on the basis of sediment cores, we assessed the extent to which Quaternary climate fluctuations can explain global variation in current reef fish richness. Comparing global historical coral reef habitat availability with the present-day distribution of 6316 reef fish species, we find that distance from stable coral reef habitats during historical periods of habitat loss explains 62% of the variation in fish richness, outweighing present-day environmental factors. Our results highlight the importance of habitat persistence during periods of climate change for preserving marine biodiversity.

Editor's Summary
Ancient reefs provided fishy refuges

Climate fluctuations have occurred repeatedly in Earth's history, and so there is much to be learned from examining the responses of past systems. Pellessier et al. reconstructed paleoenvironments over the past 3 million years from sediment cores collected across coral reef systems to explore the impacts of past conditions on reef fish diversity. Coral reefs survived in the Indo-Australian regions during times of otherwise extensive habitat loss. These robust reefs can explain much of the diversity found in present-day reef fish species.

KEYWORDS

SHARE & LIKE

COMMENTS

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Science

Science Magazine

0 Following 18 Fans 0 Projects 236 Articles

SIMILAR ARTICLES

AbstractThe conservation of sleep across all animal species suggests that sleep serves a vital function. We here report that sleep has a critical funct

Read More

Introduction Recent decades have seen a major international effort to inventory tree communities in the Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), but

Read More

IntroductionInitiation of protein synthesis is a key step in the control of gene expression. In eukaryotes, initiation is a highly complex process that

Read More

Abstract For decades, social psychological theories have posited that the automatic processes captured by implicit measures have implications for soci