Science2014-06-10 4:40 PM

科学家完成刺舌采采蝇基因组测序 有望突破其传播机制 Genome Sequence of the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans): Vector of African Trypanosomiasis

论文摘要 

国际舌蝇基因组倡议——它包括了来自世界各地的研究人员——介绍了这一366兆碱基的刺舌采采蝇(Glossina morsitans morsitans)基因组;该类采采蝇是专属的吸血蝇,它们会产下活体幼虫并会用一个类似哺乳动物奶的蛋白混合物来养育其发育中的胚胎。新研究对这些独特昆虫有了新的了解并为其所致的致命性疾病的研究奠定了基础;采采蝇会在整个撒哈拉以南非洲传播引起锥虫病(即在人中的昏睡病及在牲畜中的那加那病)的原生动物寄生虫。

研究人员显示,采采蝇依赖若干细菌性共生体来获取未由其血餐所供应的营养物质。他们还提出,在其演变的过程中,采采蝇纳入了这些共生菌——如沃尔巴克氏体——的某些染色体以及某些来自寄生蜂的未知的病毒。据研究人员披露,与采采蝇奶挂钩的12种基因——它们与来自胎盘哺乳动物及有袋类动物的那些基因十分相似——与泌乳雌性动物的所有转录活性中的几乎一半有关。

他们说,该采采蝇的视觉系统看来与那些飞得很快的苍蝇和丽蝇相似,这可以帮助解释为什么它们会被吸引至用来捕捉并杀死它们的蓝/黑色的诱捕器中。但是,与它们的严格的食物及狭窄的宿主范围相一致,这些采采蝇基因组中所含的感觉与免疫反应基因比其果蝇等亲缘蝇类要少。

Abstract 

Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein–encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.

Editor's Summary

Africa's Bane

Tsetse are blood-feeding, fast-flying flies that transmit a range of Trypanosoma spp. protozoan pathogens, which cause sleeping sickness in humans and their nagana in their livestock. The International GlossinaGenome Initiative (p. 380) sequenced the genome of Glossina morsitans and identified the genes for many attributes of the tsetse's remarkable biology, including viviparity and the expression of analogs of mammalian milk proteins. Tsetse are host to several specific symbionts that appear to synthesize essential nutrients for the fly and also to hitherto undiscovered parasitoid-derived viruses. Deeper exploration of this genome will reveal what makes these fly species so host- and trypanosome specific.

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