Science2014-06-10 4:56 PM

一幅欧洲史前人群基因风貌的图画 Genomic Diversity and Admixture Differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian Foragers and Farmers

论文摘要 

欧洲石器时代的狩猎采集者是如何转变成从事农业的人呢?这是多年来让群体遗传学家分裂的一个问题;他们中有些人提出迁徙是驱动因素,而另外一些人则提出文化传播是其动因。如今,一项新的基因研究通过比较觅食祖先相对于扩张中的农夫群体的遗传学对这一所谓的新石器时期的过渡进行了检查。

Pontus Skoglund及其同事聚焦于在瑞典被挖掘出来的7个石器时代的狩猎采集者及4个石器时代的农夫的基因组,旨在比较这两组人与那些现代欧洲人的基因差异。他们的发现显示,石器时期的这些人群之间比当今欧洲人在基因上有着更大的隔离,而这些基因往往会从史前狩猎采集者人群流向农夫--而不是反向流动。在石器时代狩猎采集者中的基因多样性也比同期农夫的基因多样性明显要少,提示他们的人口在历史上要比农夫人口要少。

据研究人员披露,气候在这一过渡中可能也扮演着一种角色;他们指出,狩猎采集者可能被下放至较冷地区,而早期的农夫则享受着较暖和的天气。总之,他们的发现描绘了一幅欧洲史前人群基因风貌的图画。


Abstract 

Prehistoric population structure associated with the transition to an agricultural lifestyle in Europe remains a contentious idea. Population-genomic data from 11 Scandinavian Stone Age human remains suggest that hunter-gatherers had lower genetic diversity than that of farmers. Despite their close geographical proximity, the genetic differentiation between the two Stone Age groups was greater than that observed among extant European populations. Additionally, the Scandinavian Neolithic farmers exhibited a greater degree of hunter-gatherer–related admixture than that of the Tyrolean Iceman, who also originated from a farming context. In contrast, Scandinavian hunter-gatherers displayed no significant evidence of introgression from farmers. Our findings suggest that Stone Age foraging groups were historically in low numbers, likely owing to oscillating living conditions or restricted carrying capacity, and that they were partially incorporated into expanding farming groups.

Editor's Summary

Hunters and Farmers

The Neolithic period in Europe saw the transition from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to farming. Previous genetic analyses have suggested that hunter-gatherers were replaced by immigrant farmers. Skoglund et al. (p. 747, published online 24 April) sequenced one Mesolithic and nine Neolithic Swedish individuals to examine the transition from hunter-gatherers to farmers. Substantial genetic differentiation was observed between hunter-gatherers and farmers: There was lower genetic diversity within the hunter-gatherers and gene flow from the hunter-gatherers into the farmers but not vice versa.

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